Want to study the science of religion? Start with this MOOC

Computer in libraryA science of religion would help us understand some baffling things. Why do otherwise normal people spend thousands of dollars to flock from halfway around the world to Mecca? What’s with all the fasting and ritual? Why do people people pray to invisible personalities? None of these questions is simple, but a growing community of researchers from diverse disciplines is buckling down to try to answer them – scientifically. From cognitive science to social psychology to evolutionary modeling, the tools of science are turning up insights into how homo religiosus – the religious human – evolved and spread across the planet. This spring, a massive online-only course (MOOC) through the University of British Columbia is offering an overview of this growing field, taught by two of its leading figures. If you’re curious about religion as a human phenomenon, this will be a good opportunity to start learning.  [Read more…]

Why colleges need (a few) more conservative professors

Connor Wood

Graduates

Last time, I wrote that American colleges and universities have an obligation to become more ideologically diverse by including more conservative perspectives. After all, college students, particularly at top-tier schools, are groomed for positions of power, and leaders who don’t understand half of the country won’t wield that power effectively. But the predominance of liberal morals in higher education has another effect. Steeped in a morality that emphasizes the prevention of harm above nearly everything else, many students learn to be reflexively skeptical of, and often hostile toward, power, hierarchy, and established social institutions – even though they themselves are often going to join and even become heads of those very institutions. Wouldn’t we be better off if our future leaders learned how to care for institutions, rather than pick them apart? [Read more…]

Is college too liberal?

LibraryA recent article in Boston Magazine claims that “liberal professors are ruining college.” The author, Chris Sweeney, reports that the ratio of liberal to conservative professors in New England colleges is a staggering 28 to 1. Thanks to this ideological lopsidedness, conservative students at left-leaning schools like Brandeis or Middlebury report feeling unable to express their views in class or disagree with their professors. At Science on Religion, I’ve often tackled questions of political ideology and culture. And as the Trump administration destructively continues to drive wedges between progressives and conservatives (almost as if it were on purpose!), Sweeney’s article raises a question that fits neatly into that arena. Does the overwhelming dominance of liberal perspectives on college campuses actually have negative effects, even in the Trump era? Yes – but those effects extend far beyond campus. And professors aren’t necessarily to blame. [Read more…]

Trump shows why Rationalia would fail

Connor Wood

Frayed Rope

A while ago, I wrote on this blog that “Reason™ is not going to save the world.” I argued that a society based on pure rational principles, without any sacred beliefs or convictions – a society like Neil DeGrasse Tyson’s Rationalia – would be a spectacular failure. It couldn’t solve the big problems, like climate change and sky-high economic inequality, that threaten society with destabilization and chaos today. Readers protested – why wouldn’t a society based on rationality and reason be preferable to unreflective tradition or sacred convictions? Well, I’ve got a really compelling answer for you: the man who’s about to be sworn in as president of the United States. Donald Trump is a perfect example of what happens when “sacred” values go out the window. [Read more…]

Social media is toxic. Religious studies tells us why.

Connor Wood

Grumpy woman with thought clouds

You know what’s been in the news a lot lately? Twitter. The erstwhile social media haunt of the dorky Beltway set circa 2009 is now being used for propaganda, for international communication, and potentially for fomenting Thucydidean wars. That’s right: we’ve literally entered a time in history when the president-elect of the United States can cause a major international incident by blurting out a half-formed thought directly onto Twitter. But you know what? He’s not alone. The internet is a place where all of our thoughts go live, just about as soon as we’ve thought them (and sometimes before). As it turns out, this is a major problem. It’s destabilizing. And religious studies – of all things – can help us understand why. [Read more…]

Overworked? Try a little ritual

Connor Wood

Eastern Orthodox Candle

A couple of months ago, I hopped a Saturday afternoon flight to Vancouver for a conference. After arriving and checking in at my hotel, I had a few hours to kill, so I did what anyone would do: I dropped in on vespers services at a tiny Russian Orthodox church, tucked away in an anonymous residential neighborhood far from the downtown core. There, I walked through a simple wooden door and into a space resplendent with gold and candles, pungent with incense. As I stood there uncomfortably not knowing when to bow, an odd thing happened: I felt my muscles physically relax. This unexpected physiological response was a reminder of what ritual, in all its dumbfounding impracticality, means for human life. [Read more…]

Why Donald Trump happened

Connor Wood

On Election Tuesday last week, I flew from Boston to Norfolk, Virginia, for a work conference. The day was beautiful and sunny, and people were friendly. My colleagues and I got an incredible view of Manhattan taking off from our layover in LaGuardia, its numberless spires catching the light like crystals. I was optimistic about the future and hopeful for the election. That evening, as the world realized that Donald Trump would win, that hopeful optimism was replaced with horror. Since then, my friends, most of whom are solidly on the left, have been in absolute consternation. My Facebook wall is a solid dirge, with the occasional recriminations and unfriendings as people discover who voted for the bad guy. However, unlike many of my contacts, I won’t be unfriending anyone. I actually have a pretty good idea of why this happened.  [Read more…]

White American ethno-nationalism is on the rise. Why?

Connor Wood

Burning flag with prison bars

Step onto Steinway Street in Queens, New York, and instantly you’ll be immersed in the sights, languages, and restaurant aromas of some of the world’s most ethnically diverse urban neighborhoods. But while big American cities like New York are attracting more immigrants than ever – and thriving because of it – the United States at large is suffering from growing discord over race and culture. As critics have often alleged, the United States has often historically relegated members of non-white groups to second-class status. If we want this to change, we have to understand why it came to be in the first place. Sociology, history, and cultural psychology can help. [Read more…]

Religion builds self-control and excludes outsiders – simultaneously

Connor Wood

Two Muslim men praying

Religion sure seems to care a lot about self-control. From the Ten Commandments to Shariah law to rule-bound Zen monasticism, most religious communities impose tremendous restrictions on their members. (Not for them the wide-open ethos of “If it feels good, do it.”) Yet despite their dreary-seeming, duty-oriented value systems, religious adherents tend to be slightly happier and longer-lived than their nonreligious peers. What gives? In a new paper, I spend a lot of pages arguing that religious constraints on behavior and elevated personal well-being are actually inextricable from one another, because following all those rules builds self-control – one of the best predictors of life outcomes. The catch? The very practices that build self-control are the same tools religions use to discriminate against outsiders. [Read more…]

The Brexit, the farmer, and the forager

Connor Wood

Resentment

So: in a spasm of reactionary populism, Britain has voted to depart the European Union. This decision, shocking though it is, wasn’t an isolated incident. Far-right parties have recently gained ground in Poland and Hungary. Elsewhere in Europe, upcoming elections may catapult yet more right-wing populists to power, while American voters are succumbing to their own demagogic right-wingery in the form of Donald Trump. Why this sudden global outpouring of retrograde populism? The answer is that we’re embroiled in a pitched struggle between two sets of values: those of cavemen and those of civilization. But you’ll be surprised to learn who resembles whom. [Read more…]