Some Neo-Pagans see themselves as the modern-day heirs to the classical mystery religions, like the Eluesinian and Isian mysteries. The rituals of mystery traditions focused on the themes of birth, death, and rebirth and the mystic unity of humanity with divinity. The mysteries emphasized experience over dogma or doctrine. They are called “mysteries” because some aspects of the traditions were kept secret, but also because the experiences conveyed by the rituals were ineffable; they could not be communicated, only experienced. Aristotle stated that “the initiated learned nothing precisely, but they received impressions and were put into a certain frame of mind. Not to learn (mathein) but to suffer (pathein) was the reason for participation in the Eleusinian ritual; and this was exactly the effect of the celebration.”
Carl Jung’s analytical psychology has had a profound impact on some forms of Neo-Paganism. Jung described the psychological process of “individuation” — the evolution of the ego into the Self — as an initiation and compared it to the Mithraic mysteries. In her essay, “Wicca as a Modern-Day Mystery Religion”, Wiccan priestess and Jungian psychologist (and fellow Patheos blogger), Vivianne Crowley, states that the goal of many “mystery religions”, ancient and modern, is self-knowledge, or rather Self-knowledge: “the realization of a stable core of the personality–the Self” as distinguished from the conscious ego. She describes Wicca as a modern-day mystery religion. The term can be equally applied to some forms of Neo-Paganism. In both cases, “the approach to the Self is made through an external expression of the inner psychological process–religious ritual”, specifically “initiation ceremonies that are intended to produce profound psychological effects”. The goal of these rituals is personal psycho-spiritual transformation. According to Crowley, mystery religious share with mysticism a concern for returning to a state of oneness with the divine source. While mysticism seeks the union through introverted techniques, like meditation, mystery cults “externalize the inner journey of the spirit to the divine by representing it through symbolism and ritual.” Much of the imagery associated with these rituals is overtly or implicitly sexual or related to death, both of which are forms of union.
Historically, a mystery religion was a secret initiatory religion. Because some forms of Neo-Paganism eschew the occultist aspects of traditional Wicca and do not require initiation into a group, it might be argued that Neo-Paganism is not a true mystery religion. However, there is an important distinction to be drawn between initiation into a group and initiation as a form of personal transformation. It is in the latter sense that some forms of Neo-Paganism may be understood as an initiatory or mystery religion. While Wiccan initiation is an example of both group and personal initiation, Neo-Pagans can experience a personal initiation without joining any group.
The initiation into the ancient mystery cults involved a ritual death, often a ritualized participation in the mythical death of a fertility deity, like Persephone or Dionysus or Attis. The Greek historian Plutarch explained: “The soul at the moment of death, goes through the same experiences as those who are initiated into the great mysteries. The word and the act are similar: we say telentai (to die) and telestai (to be initiated).” The initiatory ritual often follows the form of Joseph Campbell’s monomyth: a separation from the world, a penetration to some source of power, and a life-enhancing return. This is the pattern described by the Roman author, Apuleius, describing one such initiation into a mystery cult:
“I saw the sun shining at midnight. Gods of above and gods of below I saw face to face and worshiped. I approached the frontiers of death and having walked on the threshold of Proserpine and having been ravished by all the Elements, I returned.”
Through this experience, initiates learn what J.J. Bachofen called “the law of Demetrian motherhood”, “the reciprocal relation between perishing and coming into being, disclosing death as the indispensable forerunner of higher rebirth”.
Some Neo-Pagans today celebrate in ritual form a psycho-spiritual journey which follows the same pattern as the ancient mysteries described above. The Neo-Pagan Wheel of the Year may be understood as a year-long initiation into the Neo-Pagan mysteries. The “mysteries” of contemporary Neo-Paganism that will be discussed in subsequent posts include:
- The Meaning of Death
- The Eternal Return
- The Meaning of Sacrifice
- The Dying God
- The Descent to the Underworld
- The Mother and her Son: Zoe and Bios
- Exoteric and Esoteric Ritual