Abraham Kuyper (1837-1920) was a Dutch neo-Calvinist theologian who was one of the pioneers of “world-view” thinking. He was also a statesman who served as Prime Minister of the Netherlands (1901-1905) and whose political thinking was widely influential in Europe.
Francis Schaeffer popularized Kuyper’s ideas in the United States. The notion that Christianity entails a “world-view”–assumptions about human beings, the nature of life, and reality itself–showed how Biblical truths could be applied to all facets of life, beyond just the “religious.” And the analysis of alternative world-views (such as materialism, romanticism, existentialism, Eastern monism, etc.) influenced a generation of Christian scholars and cultural critics (including myself).