OK, so somehow I had missed, until Jeff Carter and Jonathan Bernier drew it to my attention, that there is a game which is an authorized variation on Settlers of Catan, called…Settlers Of Canaan! I will keep an eye out for it at GenCon tomorrow.
Of related interest, Minion Games has one called Kingdom of Solomon which also looks interesting. Much less useful looking is the Solomon's Temple Board Game. It seems to envisage Solomon's temple being built under constant threat from invading Babylonians. There is also a Journeys of Paul board game.