Go to Church, Skip Your Bible? Religious Incongruity in the News

As a Christian trained in sociology it’s sometimes difficult to “leave the statistics alone” when it appears in popular publications or sermons or adult Sunday school. Recently, several Christian news outlets noted a new survey finding, with bold titles like: “80% of Churchgoers Don’t Read Bible Daily.” Such a phrase is meant to provoke reading but the provocation is the interesting part. This claim assumes that Bible reading and churchgoing ought to go hand in hand, whereas survey findings suggest that this is not the case. This is an anecdotal example of what sociologist Mark Chaves argued regarding religious incongruity. His point was directed mainly at scholars and their work that makes this same assumption that religious people are supposed to be consistent in belief and behavior. In an earlier post, I showed that religious incongruity goes both ways: sometimes Asian American Christians appear less religious than expected, while Asian Americans with no religious affiliation can be surprisingly more religious than expected. Sometimes these expectations are built into surveys where questions are skipped based on a previous answer. This happened in the National Asian American Survey 2008 where those who reported “no religious affiliation” were not asked a question about church attendance.

The recent news reports about the incongruity of Bible reading and church attendance are based on a survey by LifeWay a publication arm of the Southern Baptist Convention. Since I read academic articles and books that use very rigorous methods, I used to wonder “where did that speaker or publication get those numbers?” when the figures reported didn’t comport with what I knew in the academic research world. Groups like LifeWay who have a much broader audience get the ear of practitioners where the academics often don’t get noticed.

There are several ways one could figure out the accuracy of a reported relationship. One is built on reputation: what survey firm conducted the survey? Some survey firms like the Gallup Organization have built a solid record of reliable studies, and that name-brand recognition comes at a premium. LifeWay doesn’t report who conducted the survey in their methodology page. All we do know is that they defined a “churchgoing Protestant” as a Protestant who attends church once a month or more. Another tactic then would be replication. I first turned to the General Social Surveys, the longest running, most rigorous, and most comprehensive omnibus survey on American attitudes and behaviors. Sadly I discovered that there were only a couple of times in the past 20+ years of this survey that the question of Bible reading appeared, and none of these were in the 2000s. So I turned instead to the Baylor Religion Survey 2010, a solid survey conducted by the Gallup Organization every few years. As one of the contributors to the design of the survey, I feel confident in the findings since we work carefully to ask the right questions, and we work closely with a well-established survey group that provides us with the survey data of a large random sample of Americans.

So here is a screenshot of the graph that LifeWay posted to illustrate the reported Bible reading rates of Protestants who attend church once a month or more:

http://www.lifeway.com/images/970a39c1-6dc0-4744-b63b-737885ea29b8.jpg

Screenshot taken from website: http://www.lifeway.com/images/970a39c1-6dc0-4744-b63b-737885ea29b8.jpg

 

As they state, about 19% of Protestants who attend church at least once a month read their Bible every day. About the same percent do not read much if at all. How does the Baylor Religion Survey compare?

As you can see, we can’t make exact comparisons since LifeWay didn’t design their survey using the standard approach in academic social science research on the question of Bible reading. Indeed their aims are different. But we can make some approximate equivalence to draw some comparability. In LifeWay’s sample, 45% of Protestant monthly+ attenders read the Bible at least a few times a week. The BRS figure is lower: 34%. At the other extreme, the LifeWay survey found that 18% of Protestant monthly+ attenders read the Bible “rarely or never.” The BRS figure is nearly twice as high, 34%. The middle categories run roughly similarly in both surveys between 36% and 32%.

What this suggests is that while LifeWay’s main concern was to show that active church-attending Protestants are not engaging in sacred Scripture reading enough, the BRS finding suggests that they should be even more alarmed. A much lower fraction of active Protestants are reading a lot, and much higher fraction don’t read at all. Yet both of these findings show more support for Chaves’ argument. We’re surprised at the low congruity between different behaviors that we assume go together in the life of the Protestant Christian. But perhaps the incongruity is the norm, and that the exception is when individuals or groups are remarkably consistent.

So this raises the question for both scholars and practitioners: if incongruity is normal, how should we restructure the way we model religious behavior, and how would religious groups alter their teaching and ministry with this foundational shift in their thinking?

Much gratitude to research assistant, Shelly Isaacs, for finding the LifeWay links and graphing work.

  • http://bookwi.se Adam Shields

    I found the assumption spiritual growth requiring of individual reading interesting. Most of Christian history there has not been individiual access to scripture. So if you model of spiritual growth requires invdidiual scripture reading you need to discount spiritual depth among illiterate Christians of history. It is exactly the marginally literate groups in the third world that are the fasted growing Christian populations now. I would like to see some investigation into methods of spiritual growth among people that cannot or do not read.

    I have been in small groups throughout my adult life and over the past several years there has pretty much always been at least one member that just refused to do any reading. They could read, but they didn’t. They were usually male, fairly highly educated and working in business. I assume that that carried through in bible reading as well as other types of reading.

  • Ted Seeber

    This strikes me as having three problems, two of which actually have something to do with the study.
    1. It’s horribly sola scriptura based. There are lots of Christians for whom the Bible is what you hear readings out of, not what you read yourself, and then only explained by a competent professional. In fact, this was the *default* liturgy for Jews and Christians up until 500 years ago.
    2. The results look suspiciously like the 20-80 rule in action to me- in any given congregation, 20% of the people will do 80% of the charitable work (even though I’m Catholic I know this because I’m a Grand Knight in Knights of Columbus- and that rule fits my council); so therefore I’d expect it to apply to the majority of any religious congregation as well when it comes to the spiritual works of mercy as well as the corporal.

    And finally- how the heck are you on both the Catholic and Evangelical channels?

    • Jerry Park

      Thanks Ted for your comments, yes the original study was based out of the Southern Baptist Convention so it tends toward a certain pietistic practice orientation toward spirituality. In answer to the last question BWG consists of active Christians who would identify roughly as Catholic or Evangelical. I think we got a special dispensation from Patheos to get space on both platforms.

  • Jay Egenes

    I’m not sure how much incongruity this shows. A majority of people who say they attend church at least once a month say they read the Bible at least once a week. And my guess is that people over-state their church attendance, but not their Bible reading. So, if you compared to people who don’t attend monthly, I’d guess there’s more Bible reading going among regular attenders.
    Rev. Foss (whose first name I forget right now) says that discipleship consists of 6 (or 7 depending on how you count them) things:
    Worship
    Prayer
    Bible Reading
    Giving
    Serving (inside or outside the church); and
    Telling about Jesus/inviting others to worship.

    Putnam suggests that people who are “highly religious” in one area are likely to be highly religious in the others–although there’s not a 100% correlation.
    As a pastor, I would hypothesize that most people who are truly regular attenders (which I think is more than once a month) also regularly do most but not all of the things on Foss’s discipleship list.

  • Jay Egenes

    I loved your last question. Here’s how I’d rephrase it. As a congregation, we have contact with the most people on Sunday morning. How do we use that time (or other time during the week) to encourage people to actually engage in the other discipleship practices? Is it even possible to effectively encourage that behavior?


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