The Holy Innocents, St. Augustine, and the Coventry Carol

Today, during this octave of Christmas, the Church celebrates the memory of the Holy Innocents—the male children of the village of Bethlehem who were brutally murdered by the wicked king Herod in his quest to eliminate the Christ Child.

I offer you three reflections on these innocent children:

  • First, the Scriptural account of the massacre, as recounted in the Gospel of Matthew;
  • Second, a homily by St. Augustine, who remembered the young martyrs and spoke of  heaven’s blessings streaming down upon them; and
  • Third, the Coventry Carol, a sixteenth-century English song which was originally part of a mystery play titled “The Pageant of the Shearmen and Tailors”.  The somber carol takes the form of a lullaby sung by mothers of the doomed children.

MATTHEW 2:13-18

The Escape to Egypt

Now when they had departed, behold, an angel of the Lord appeared to Joseph in a dream and said, “Rise, take the child and his mother, and flee to Egypt, and remain there till I tell you; for Herod is about to search for the child, to destroy him.”  And he rose and took the child and his mother by night, and departed to Egypt, and remained there until the death of Herod.  This was to fulfill what the Lord had spoken by the prophet, “Out of Egypt have I called my son.”

The Massacre of the Infants

Then Herod, when he saw that he had been tricked by the wise men, was in a furious rage, and he sent and killed all the male children in Bethlehem and in all that region who were two years old or under, according to the time which he had ascertained from the wise men.  Then was fulfilled what was spoken by the prophet Jeremiah:

“A voice was heard in Ramah,
wailing and loud lamentation,
Rachel weeping for her children;
she refused to be consoled,
because they were no more.”

–Matthew 2:13-18

From a Homily of St. Augustine

On the Feast of the Holy Innocents

Today, dearest brethren, we celebrate the birthday of those children who were slaughtered, as the Gospel tells us, by that exceedingly cruel king, Herod. Let the earth, therefore, rejoice and the Church exult — she, the fruitful mother of so many heavenly champions and of such glorious virtues. Never, in fact, would that impious tyrant have been able to benefit these children by the sweetest kindness as much as he has done by his hatred. For as today’s feast reveals, in the measure with which malice in all its fury was poured out upon the holy children, did heaven’s blessing stream down upon them.

“Blessed are you, Bethlehem in the land of Judah! You suffered the inhumanity of King Herod in the murder of your babes and thereby have become worthy to offer to the Lord a pure host of infants. In full right do we celebrate the heavenly birthday of these children whom the world caused to be born unto an eternally blessed life rather than that from their mothers’ womb, for they attained the grace of everlasting life before the enjoyment of the present. The precious death of any martyr deserves high praise because of his heroic confession; the death of these children is precious in the sight of God because of the beatitude they gained so quickly. For already at the beginning of their lives they pass on. The end of the present life is for them the beginning of glory. These then, whom Herod’s cruelty tore as sucklings from their mothers’ bosom, are justly hailed as “infant martyr flowers”; they were the Church’s first blossoms, matured by the frost of persecution during the cold winter of unbelief.

— St. Augustine


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