In Memory of René Girard: The Truth about Life and Death

Photo: Screenshot from YouTube
Photo: Screenshot from YouTube

Many scholars have claimed that René Girard’s mimetic theory is one of the most important insights of the 20th century. But those of us who have been highly influenced by René know better. For us, it is not an overstatement to state that René’s explanation of mimetic theory is the most important discovery of human nature in the last 2,000 years. That is, since the Gospels.

This morning brought the news that René has passed away at age 91. “Girardians,” as we are called, have been on social media sharing our sorrow at his passing, but also our profound sense of gratitude for this giant among human beings. We stand on his shoulders. And our vision is all the clearer for it.

As I reflected upon the news, I was struck by the fact that René taught us so much about death. Specifically, about the scapegoat mechanism. René confronted us with the truth about being human. We all have a propensity to manage our conflicts by blaming someone else for them. We find unity against a common enemy. In good sacrificial formula, all of our conflicts and sins against one another are washed away as we unite in expelling or sacrificing our scapegoat. Temporary reconciliation and peace descends upon the community, but it is only temporary. For the expulsion or murder of our scapegoat never actually solves our problems. Our conflicts re-emerge and the scapegoating mechanism continues.

But if René taught us about death, he also taught us about life. The solution to our natural inclination toward scapegoating is found in the Judeo-Christian tradition, specifically in the Gospels’ portrayal of Jesus’ death. “Christ agrees to die,” wrote René in his book Things Hidden Since the Foundation of the World, “so that mankind will live.”

Many progressive Christians who do not know René’s work will bristle at that statement. Indeed, without reading René’s books, it could sound like a form of penal subsitutionary atonement theory that claims Jesus allows humanity to live by saving us from the violent wrath of God.

But nothing could be further from the truth. The truth that René revealed throughout his career is that wrath doesn’t belong to God. It belongs solely to humans. In anthropological terms, what was revealed by the death of Jesus was the human scapegoat mechanism. Once you read René’s works, you realize how obvious it is that the violence at the cross had nothing to do with God, but everything to do with the human propensity to scapegoat.

Still, at this point, we should warn ourselves not to scapegoat penal substitutionary atonement theory. After all, if René taught us anything it’s that human have been projecting our own violence onto God since the foundation of the world. We justify our violence and hatred against our scapegoats in the name of God or peace or justice or whatever we deem to be a important to our well-being.

René taught us that to truly live is to stop scapegoating our enemies, and to stop justifying it in the name of God. Once at a conference, René was asked what would happen if mimetic theory became wildly successful. He answered, “There would be no more scapegoating.”

To end scapegoating and to truly live we need to follow Jesus by turning away from violence and turning toward our neighbors, including those we call our enemies, in the spirit of love and nonviolence.

René not only taught us that truth, he lived into it. I met him once at a conference for young Girardian scholars. I was struck by the fact that René wasn’t interested in teaching us, or making sure we had his theory “right.” What he wanted more than anything was to talk with us. He wanted to learn about our lives and what interested us. He had a special humility about him – instead of taking glory for himself, he gave glory to others. For example, I remember sitting across the table from him. He smiled as he looked me in the eyes and said, “I’ve watched your Mimetic Theory 101 videos. They’re good.” That’s the way he was. He affirmed all of us and encouraged us to follow the truth, no matter where it led.

René always gave the last word to the Gospels. It’s where he found the truth about life and death. It’s only fitting that I end with this quote that sums up René’s theory about God, violence, and love,

The following is the basic text, in my opinion, that shows us a God who is alien to all violence and who wishes in consequence to see humanity abandon violence:

“You have heard that it was said, ‘You shall love your neighbor and hate your enemy.’ But I say to you, Love your enemies and pray for those who persecute you, so that you may be children of your Father who is in heaven; for he makes his sun rise on the evil and on the good, and sends rain on the just and the unjust.” (Matthew 5:43-45, Things Hidden, 183)

May our brother René rest in peace, and rise in the glorious love of God.

 

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  • The Janzen Boys

    This was really good. Much of what you say about Girard’s ideas reminds me of Peter Abelard’s Moral Influence theory of the atonement. Does that ever come up in your research?

    • http://www.ravenfoundation.org/category/blogs/ Adam Ericksen

      H! Yes, Abelard’s moral influence theory works pretty with mimetic theory. Girard says that Jesus is the model for us to follow, as Jesus followed his Father. I can’t remember any Girardian really taking up moral influence theory in relation to mimetic theory, but it wouldn’t surprise me if someone has. I’ve been meaning to look more into it, and will hope to do that soon. It’s a great idea!

  • Obscurely

    I’m a minister who has been deeply influenced by Girard’s thought … one of the Girardian epiphanies I remember from seminary is that a literal physical Resurrection was/is God’s way of affirming the innocence of Jesus as a Victim, that the historicity of the Resurrection is necessary to God’s subversion of violence … I hope I’m remembering that right, or can you say more to correct or amplify my understanding of the Resurrection in relation to Girard’s hermeneutic?

    • http://www.ravenfoundation.org/category/blogs/ Adam Ericksen

      Yes!!! That is right. Girard talks about the resurrection as the vindication of Jesus as the Victim. It’s such an important point, especially since in the resurrection Jesus continues to reveal the nonviolence of God.

      James Alison says that all other myths tell the story of the dead coming back to haunt people, or seek revenge. But the Gospels tell a different story. The first words out of his mouth is “peace” to those who betrayed him. Without the resurrection, the movement dies. With the resurrection, it gain momentum.

      • Obscurely

        Thanks for your amplification — I think the role of the Resurrection in Girard’s thought is so important, as without it his hermeneutic becomes (in the minds of many conservative Christians?) just another liberal gutting of the Gospel …