Churches took one approach to relating to the culture when it was pro-Christian. It took a different approach when the culture became religiously neutral. But what approach should it take when the dominant culture is actively opposed to Christianity?
This is the theme of an important essay by Aaron Renn, published in First Things and entitled The Three Worlds of Evangelicalism.
Focusing on evangelicalism, he surveys the practices and tactics that Christians have been employing as the religious climate in the culture has been changing. You need to read the essay in its entirety for its details, evidence, and nuances. I will quote his three phases and briefly summarize the church’s response to each one: