Slavery: America’s Original Sin?

Slavery: America’s Original Sin? October 15, 2013

[This week’s post is from my archives at Patheos.]

The Smithsonian’s National Museum of American History has a touring exhibit entitled “Slavery at Jefferson’s Monticello: Paradox of Liberty.” At the front of the Smithsonian display stands a life-size statue of Jefferson, backed by a panel listing the known names of about 600 slaves who worked for Jefferson during his life. The display has renewed the moral dilemma of slavery’s role in our national history.

Is slavery America’s original sin? Or is the Smithsonian dredging up a topic best left alone? Some critics, including a number of evangelical Christians, would seemingly prefer that we let this issue slumber. One proponent of this view in Tennessee reportedly said that he wanted to eliminate from the state’s textbooks any “made-up criticism about . . . the founders intruding on the Indians or having slaves or being hypocrites in one way or another.”

Obviously, the notion of many Founders having slaves is not “made up.” Jefferson, George Washington, Patrick Henry, and essentially all the major southern Founders owned slaves. Even Ben Franklin, who later spoke out against slavery, possessed a couple slaves for a time. But should we emphasize this fact? Does focusing on the paradox that the author of the Declaration of Independence was a slave owner somehow detract from his accomplishments?

I don’t think so. After all, the slave-owning Founders, including Jefferson, talked openly about the moral problems of America’s plantation labor system. With reference to slavery, Jefferson wrote in Notes on the State of Virginia that “I tremble for my country when I reflect that God is just; that his justice cannot sleep forever.” Jefferson tried to excuse his failure to free his slaves; he feared that widespread emancipation could lead to the “extirpation” of the masters in a vicious race war. He was also up to his neck in debt. How could he afford to free his unpaid labor force?

As I show in my biography Patrick Henry: First Among Patriots, Patrick Henry was even more transparent about the injustice of his ownership of other human beings. “Is it not amazing,” he asked, “that at a time, when the rights of humanity are defined and understood with precision, in a country above all others fond of liberty,” that Americans still clung to slavery? Henry applied this criticism directly to himself: “Would any one believe that I am a master of slaves of my own purchase! I am drawn along by the general inconvenience of living without them, I will not, I cannot justify it.”

Thomas Jefferson

Of course, in identifying the moral problem of slavery, we should not dismiss the Founders as worthless hypocrites. Doing so is what historians call “presentism,” or evaluating people in the past by what we would expect of them today. In the Founding era, the moral critique of slavery was just beginning to emerge, driven primarily by white and black evangelical northerners. We must remember, humbly, that had we been born into a white southern slave owning family in 1776, we almost certainly would have died as a slave owner, too.

Our veneration for the Founders is deserved. In them we find, with apologies to Tom Brokaw, another “greatest generation,” with political genius and courage that puts us to shame today. They created the world’s longest-lasting constitutional republic. They articulated the dynamic principle that “all men are created equal,” a belief that undergirded all of America’s great moral reform movements, from abolitionism to civil rights.

Nevertheless, we are also obligated to recognize slave owning as an immoral practice that stained America’s founding. The Founders were flawed people—as are we all. They were inspired political leaders, but not saints or apostles. Two and a half centuries of retrospection tends to put a people’s moral failings in sharp relief. Should our nation endure, we might expect Americans of the twenty-third century to gawk at today’s manifest moral failings as well.

The Founders’ unwillingness to act decisively against slavery should make sense to American Christians, though. No matter how great a person’s virtues, vice always lurks. Patrick Henry remains a hero to me, even as I know his failings. If our heroes have to be perfect, then our list of historic exemplars will become very short. But imperfect heroes are, in a way, more instructive than (supposedly) perfect ones: no matter how great they become, all mere mortals are tempted to indulge their blind spots and moral evasions.

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  • JerryFaught

    Great article! Excellent analysis. I especially like the closing paragraph. Thanks for sharing.

  • Steve Stratton

    Slavery was not the only paradox. Although our founding fathers preached a lot of freedoms, they also believed these right only applied to male landowners. They also continued the practice of indentured servants, which also was a form of slavery, and the had debtor’s prisons, where people were inprisoned if they couldn’t pay their debts and could be forced into become indentured servants!

  • Tiffany

    Heros do not have to be perfect, but they do have to be heroic. This articlle wants us to overlook shameful events and give praise to unworthy recipients.

  • Dr_Phaedrus

    Where do the pogroms committed against Native Americans fit in? We annihilated entire tribes and nations on a scale that produced an insidious scar from the Atlantic to the Pacific. Where is the repentance for that? They were not Canaanites falling under the wrath of God, however deluded we might have been (and continue to be) that we are the new people of God.

    America has never been cleansed and never will be clean until we confess and repent from that horrific, fundamental sin against people – one far worse than slavery.

  • Cynewulf

    It’s almost like you read a different article…

  • Mahlon Bekedam

    Having read the article you referenced from TN, I suspect the man who was quoted would probably completely agree with your viewpoint. He was arguing for balance in the way the founders are presented. As I read the article, I hear him criticizing “what historians call “presentism,”” as you put it.

  • Don Ward

    Who was it that first described the institution of slavery as America’s original sin? I’ve looked for the origin of this quote without success.

    I guess it’s a good thing that this quote is so ingrained in my mind.

  • Don

    Who was it that first described the institution of slavery as America’s original sin? I’ve looked for the origin of this quote without success.

    I guess it’s a good thing that this quote is so ingrained in my mind.