Jesus is God: Hundreds of Biblical Proofs (RSV Edition)

Jesus is God: Hundreds of Biblical Proofs (RSV Edition) April 17, 2019

[all passages RSV unless indicated otherwise]

[Italicized verses indicate words of Jesus Himself]

1. Direct Statements of Jesus’ Equality with God the Father

Matthew 1:23 “Behold, a virgin shall conceive and bear a son, and his name shall be called Emmanuel” (which means, God with us).

Matthew 4:7 Jesus said to him, “Again it is written, ‘You shall not tempt the Lord your God.’” [the devil was tempting Jesus: 4:3, 5-6]

Matthew 13:15 For this people’s heart has grown dull, and their ears are heavy of hearing, and their eyes they have closed, lest they should perceive with their eyes, and hear with their ears, and understand with their heart, and turn for me to heal them. (cf. Mt 13:13-14 and Is 6:9-10) [Jesus is citing an Old Testament passage about God and applying it to Himself]

John 1:1 In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. (cf. 1:2-4, 14; 1 Jn 1:1)

John 5:17-18, 21-22 But Jesus answered them, “My Father is working still, and I am working.” [18] This was why the Jews sought all the more to kill him, because he not only broke the sabbath but also called God his Father, making himself equal with God.… [21] For as the Father raises the dead and gives them life, so also the Son gives life to whom he will. [22] The Father judges no one, but has given all judgment to the Son,” (cf. 16:14-15; 17:10)

John 8:24 I told you that you would die in your sins, for you will die in your sins unless you believe that I am he. (cf. 8:28; 13:19; Ex 3:13-15)

John 8:58 Jesus said to them, “Truly, truly, I say to you, before Abraham was, I am.”

John 10:30, 33 “I and the Father are one.”… [33] The Jews answered him, “It is not for a good work that we stone you but for blasphemy; because you, being a man, make yourself God.”

John 20:28 Thomas answered him, “My Lord and my God!” [Jesus didn’t correct him]

Use of “Father” Jesus constantly referred to God as “My Father” and claimed to have a unique relationship with Him. In Mark 14:36 He called God Abba, Aramaic for “daddy”: an absolutely unprecedented address of God (cf. Rom 8:15; Gal 4:6). The Jews understood full well what Jesus was implying by repeatedly speaking of His singular relationship with God the Father, but thought this was blasphemy, since they didn’t believe that He Himself was God the Son (cf. Jn 5:18; 10:33 above).

Divine “I” Jesus teaches in His own authority (“I say to you”) in the Sermon on the Mount (Mt 5:18-34, etc.), and many other passages. The prophets, in contrast, spoke as God’s messengers in the second person (“The Lord says…”). He often talks in a way in which only God could speak. For instance, when He addresses the seven churches in the book of Revelation, He is clearly speaking to them as God (Rev 1:17-3:22). Perhaps the most striking example of this occurs in Matthew 23:

Matthew 23:34, 37 Therefore I send you prophets and wise men and scribes… [37] O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, killing the prophets and stoning those who are sent to you! How often would I have gathered your children together as a hen gathers her brood under her wings, and you would not!

Monogenes (“Only Begotten”) The phrase “only begotten (Son)”: used in John 1:18; 3:16, 18, and 1 John 4:9, is the Greek monogenes, which means, according to any Greek lexicon, “unique, only member of a kind.” It does not mean “created,” as some (e.g., Jehovah’s Witnesses) falsely interpret it. Christ is the eternal Son of God, and as such, possesses every attribute of pure Godhood, just as a human son partakes fully of humanness.

Philippians 2:6 who, though he was in the form of God, did not count equality with God a thing to be grasped,

Colossians 1:18-19 He is the head of the body, the church; he is the beginning, the first-born from the dead, that in everything he might be pre-eminent. [19] For in him all the fulness of God was pleased to dwell, (cf. 1:15-16)

Prototokos (“Firstborn”) The Greek for “first-born” is prototokos, which means “preeminence” and “eternal preexistence,” according to Greek lexicons. It does not mean “first-created.” The Hebrew usage of “first-born” is also instructive, since it illustrates its meaning as “preeminent.” David is called “first-born” in Psalm 89:27, not because he was the literal first child of Jesse (for he was the youngest), but in the sense of his ascendancy to the kingship of Israel. Likewise, Jeremiah 31:9 refers to Ephraim as the first-born, whereas Manasseh was actually the first child born (Gen 41:50-52). The nation Israel is called “my first-born son” by God (Ex 4:22). The Jewish rabbinical writers even called God the Father Bekorah Shelolam, meaning “first-born of all creation,” that is, the Creator. This is precisely what St. Paul means by “firstborn” in Colossians 1:15, 18.

Colossians 2:9 For in him the whole fulness of deity dwells bodily, (cf. 1 Tim 3:15-16; 1 Pet 1:20)

Titus 2:13 awaiting our blessed hope, the appearing of the glory of our great God and Savior Jesus Christ,

Hebrews 1:8 But of the Son he says, “Thy throne, O God, is for ever and ever, the righteous scepter is the scepter of thy kingdom.” (God the Father calls the Son Jesus, “God” — reference to Ps 45:6-7)

2 Peter 1:1 …our God and Savior Jesus Christ:

1 John 5:20 And we know that the Son of God has come and has given us understanding, to know him who is true; and we are in him who is true, in his Son Jesus Christ. This is the true God and eternal life.

2. Creator

God alone is the creator

Genesis 1:1 In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth.

Nehemiah 9:6 And Ezra said: “Thou art the LORD, thou alone; thou hast made heaven, the heaven of heavens, with all their host, the earth and all that is on it, the seas and all that is in them; and thou preservest all of them; and the host of heaven worships thee.” (cf. Jer 32:17)

Job 9:8 who alone stretched out the heavens,… (cf. Ps 33:6)

Isaiah 44:24 Thus says the LORD, your Redeemer, who formed you from the womb: “I am the LORD, who made all things, who stretched out the heavens alone, who spread out the earth — Who was with me?” (cf. 40:28; 42:5; Mal 2:10; Rom 11:36; Eph 3:9; Heb 2:10)

Jesus is the creator

John 1:3 all things were made through him, and without him was not anything made that was made. (cf. 1:10)

1 Corinthians 8:6 yet for us there is one God, the Father, from whom are all things and for whom we exist, and one Lord, Jesus Christ, through whom are all things and through whom we exist.

Colossians 1:16 for in him all things were created, in heaven and on earth, visible and invisible, whether thrones or dominions or principalities or authorities — all things were created through him and for him.

Hebrews 1:2, 10 but in these last days he has spoken to us by a Son, whom he appointed the heir of all things, through whom also he created the world.… [10] And, “Thou, Lord, didst found the earth in the beginning, and the heavens are the work of thy hands;” [God the Father calls the Son, Jesus “Lord” and describes Him as creator; Ps 102:25 is cited]

Revelation 3:14 …the beginning of God’s creation.

Arche This is the Greek word for “beginning” — from which we derive our word “architect.” Its literal meaning is “origin, active cause, source, uncreated principle.” Thus, Revelation 3:14 describes Jesus as the “architect” or creator of the universe. In 21:6 arche is also applied to the Father, so it can’t possibly mean “created being.”

3. Eternal and Uncreated

God alone is eternal and uncreated

Genesis 21:33 …the LORD, the Everlasting God. (cf. Ex 3:14; Ps 90:2; 93:2; Is 40:28; Hab 1:12)

Romans 16:26 …the eternal God…. (cf. Dt 33:27; Is 57:15; 1 Tim 1:17)

Jesus is eternal and uncreated

Isaiah 9:6 For to us a child is born, to us a son is given; and the government will be upon his shoulder, and his name will be called “Wonderful Counselor, Mighty God, Everlasting Father, Prince of Peace.”

God the Father is also called “Mighty God” (the same phrase in Hebrew: El Gibbor): Dt 10:17; Neh 9:32; Is 10:21; Jer 32:18. The word for “everlasting,” ad, is applied to God the Father in Isaiah 57:15.

Micah 5:2 But you, O Bethlehem Eph’rathah, who are little to be among the clans of Judah, from you shall come forth for me one who is to be ruler in Israel, whose origin is from of old, from ancient days. (cf. 1 Jn 1:1)

The Hebrew word for “from ancient days” here (KJV: “from everlasting”) is olam; it’s often used to describe God the Father’s eternal existence (e.g., Ps 41:13; 90:2; 93:2; 106:48; Is 40:28). If this word means “eternal and uncreated” when applied to God the Father (YHWH), then it must mean the same thing when it is applied to Jesus.

Colossians 1:17 He is before all things,… (cf. Jn 17:5, 24)

Hebrews 13:8 Jesus Christ is the same yesterday and today and for ever.

4. Worshiped

God alone is to be worshiped

Exodus 34:14 (for you shall worship no other god, for the LORD, whose name is Jealous, is a jealous God), (cf. 20:3)

Deuteronomy 8:19 And if you forget the LORD your God and go after other gods and serve them and worship them, I solemnly warn you this day that you shall surely perish. (cf. 11:16; 17:3; 29:26; 30:17; 1 Ki 9:6-9; Jer 16:11; 22:9; 25:6; Dan 3:28)

Luke 4:8 And Jesus answered him, “It is written, ‘You shall worship the Lord your God, and him only shall you serve.’” (cf. Mt 4:10)

Revelation 4:9-11 And whenever the living creatures give glory and honor and thanks to him who is seated on the throne, who lives for ever and ever, [10] the twenty-four elders fall down before him who is seated on the throne and worship him who lives for ever and ever; they cast their crowns before the throne, singing, [11] “Worthy art thou, our Lord and God, to receive glory and honor and power, for thou didst create all things, and by thy will they existed and were created.”

Worship of angels is condemned (Col 2:18), and angels refuse worship (Rev 19:10; 22:8-9). Peter refuses worship (Acts 10:25-26), as do Paul and Barnabas (Acts 14:11-15).

Jesus is worshiped, and He accepts worship

Matthew 14:33 And those in the boat worshiped him, saying, “Truly you are the Son of God.” (cf. 2:2; 2:11; 8:2; 9:18; 15:25; 20:20)

Matthew 28:9 And behold, Jesus met them and said, “Hail!” And they came up and took hold of his feet and worshiped him. (cf. 28:17; Mk 5:6; Lk 24:52; Jn 9:38)

John 5:23 that all may honor the Son, even as they honor the Father. He who does not honor the Son does not honor the Father who sent him.

Philippians 2:9-11 Therefore God has highly exalted him and bestowed on him the name which is above every name, [10] that at the name of Jesus every knee should bow, in heaven and on earth and under the earth, [11] and every tongue confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father.

Hebrews 1:6 And again, when he brings the first-born into the world, he says, “Let all God’s angels worship him.” (cf. 7:26; Acts 2:33; 5:31)

Revelation 5:11-14 Then I looked, and I heard around the throne and the living creatures and the elders the voice of many angels, numbering myriads of myriads and thousands of thousands, [12] saying with a loud voice, “Worthy is the Lamb who was slain, to receive power and wealth and wisdom and might and honor and glory and blessing!” [13] And I heard every creature in heaven and on earth and under the earth and in the sea, and all therein, saying, “To him who sits upon the throne and to the Lamb be blessing and honor and glory and might for ever and ever!” [14] And the four living creatures said, “Amen!” and the elders fell down and worshiped. (cf. 4:9-11; 5:8)

Revelation 7:9-12 After this I looked, and behold, a great multitude which no man could number, from every nation, from all tribes and peoples and tongues, standing before the throne and before the Lamb, clothed in white robes, with palm branches in their hands, [10] and crying out with a loud voice, “Salvation belongs to our God who sits upon the throne, and to the Lamb!” [11] And all the angels stood round the throne and round the elders and the four living creatures, and they fell on their faces before the throne and worshiped God, [12] saying, “Amen! Blessing and glory and wisdom and thanksgiving and honor and power and might be to our God for ever and ever! Amen.”

Worship of Jesus in the book of Revelation is the same as the worship of God the Father

In the New Testament, the Greek word for “worship,” proskuneo, is used 22 times to refer to worship of the Father, five times of divine worship without specification, and 14 times in reference to worship of Jesus. Proskuneo is also explicitly defined, both in Revelation 4:10-11 and 7:11-12, since both passages define the worship of God by virtue of describing the words directed to God in praise and worship (7:11-12: “worshiped God, saying…”).

Every Greek word (eleven in all) applied to God the Father in this fashion in Revelation is applied to Jesus as well (eucharistia is used of Christ in Colossians). One word, ploutos, is applied to Jesus only in Revelation, and to the Father in Romans 11:33. There can be no stronger evidence that Jesus is to receive worship equally with His Father, thus making Him equal to the Father, and no less than fully God:

Greek: Pipto; English: (“fall down before”; “fell on their faces before”)

Father: Revelation 4:10; 7:11

Jesus: Revelation 5:8

Eulogia (“blessing”)

Father: 5:13; 7:12

Jesus: 5:12-13

Doxa (“glory”)

Father: 4:9, 11; 5:13; 7:12

Jesus: 5:12-13

Sophia (“wisdom”)

Father: 7:12

Jesus: 5:12

Time (“honor”)

Father: 4:9, 11; 5:13; 7:12

Jesus: 5:12-13

Dunamis (“power”)

Father: 4:11; 7:12

Jesus: 5:12

Kratos (“might”)

Father: 5:13

Jesus: 5:13

Ischus (“might”)

Father: 7:12

Jesus: 5:12

Axios (“worthy”)

Father: 4:11

Jesus: 5:12

Lambano (“receive”)

Father: 4:11

Jesus: 5:12

Ploutos (“riches”; “wealth”)

Father: (Romans 11:33)

Jesus: Rev 5:12

Eucharistia (“thanks”; “thanksgiving”)

Father: 4:9; 7:12

Jesus: (Colossians 2:6-7)

5. Omnipotent (All-Powerful)

God alone is omnipotent

Job 42:2 I know that thou canst do all things, and that no purpose of thine can be thwarted. (cf. 11:7-11; Prov 19:21; Is 14:27)

Jeremiah 32:17 …Nothing is too hard for thee, (cf. Gen 18:14; Dt 32:39; Ps 33:9; Is 46:10; Jer 32:17; Rom 1:20)

Matthew 19:26 …With men this is impossible, but with God all things are possible. (cf. Mk 10:27; Lk 1:37; 18:27; Eph 1:11)

God the Father or “God” is also called “almighty” in many verses (Gen 17:1; 28:3; 35:11; 43:14; 48:3; 49:25; Ex 6:3; Job 5:17; 6:4, 14; 8:3, 5; 21:15, 20; 27:2, 10-11, 13; 31:2, 35, etc.; Ezek 10:5; 2 Cor 6:18; Rev 1:8; 4:8; 11:17; 15:3; 16:7, 14; 19:6, 15; 21:22).

Jesus is omnipotent

John 5:21 For as the Father raises the dead and gives them life, so also the Son gives life to whom he will. [implied: the Father’s unique characteristics are also possessed by the Son; cf. 2:19; 3:35; 5:19-20; 6:40; 10:17-18; 13:3]

Philippians 3:21 who will change our lowly body to be like his glorious body, by the power which enables him even to subject all things to himself. (cf. Rev 1:18; 3:7)

Colossians 1:17 …in him all things hold together.

Hebrews 1:3 …upholding the universe by his word of power.…

6. Omniscient (All-Knowing)

God alone is omniscient

1 Chronicles 28:9 …the LORD searches all hearts, and understands every plan and thought.… (cf. 1 Ki 8:39; 2 Chr 6:30; Ps 44:21; Is 66:18; Ezek 11:5; Mt 6:8; Lk 16:15; Acts 1:24; Rom 8:27; Heb 4:13)

Psalm 147:5 Great is our LORD, and abundant in power;  his understanding is beyond measure. (cf. Job 36:4; 37:16; Is 40:28; 46:10; 48:3; Acts 15:18)

Romans 11:33 O the depth of the riches and wisdom and knowledge of God! How unsearchable are his judgments and how inscrutable his ways!

1 John 3:20 …God is greater than our hearts, and he knows everything.

Jesus is omniscient

John 16:30 Now we know that you know all things,… (cf. 21:17)

Colossians 2:3 in whom are hid all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge.

Revelation 2:23 …I am he who searches mind and heart…. (cf. 1 Chr 28:9)

Omniscience is also implied (though not proven) in many passages that describe Jesus’ extraordinary knowledge; these are consistent with omniscience (Mt 9:4; 12:25; Mk 2:8; 14:13-15; Lk 5:22; 6:8; 9:47; 22:10-13; Jn 2:24-25; 4:17-19, 29; 6:64; 13:11).

Additionally, there are many other verses illustrating that Jesus knew the future perfectly, which is consistent with, and suggestive of omniscience, though not a proof (Mt 12:40; 13:1; 16:21; 17:9, 11-12, 22-23; 20:18-19; 21:39; 24:2; 26:2, 12, 21, 31-34, 54; Mk 8:31; 9:31; 10:32-34; 14:9, 18, 27-30, 42, 49; Lk 9:22, 44; 11:30; 12:50; 17:25; 18:31-33; 22:15, 21-22, 32, 34, 37; Jn 2:19; 3:14; 10:11, 15, 17-18; 12:32-34; 13:18-21; 14:19; 15:13; 16:20; 18:4, 11; 21:18-19).

7. Omnipresent (Present Everywhere)

God alone is omnipresent

1 Kings 8:27 But will God indeed dwell on the earth? Behold, heaven and the highest heaven cannot contain thee…. (cf. 2 Chr 2:6; Acts 7:48-49)

Psalm 139:7-8 Whither shall I go from thy Spirit? Or whither shall I flee from thy presence? [8] If I ascend to heaven, thou art there! If I make my bed in Sheol, thou art there!

Jeremiah 23:24 Can a man hide himself in secret places so that I cannot see him? says the LORD. Do I not fill heaven and earth? says the LORD. (cf. Eph 4:6)

Jesus is omnipresent

Ephesians 1:22-23 …the church, [23] which is his body, the fulness of him who fills all in all. (cf. Mt 18:20)

Colossians 3:11 …Christ is all, and in all. (cf. Mt 28:20)

8. Forgives Sins in His Own Name

God alone can forgive sins in His own name

Exodus 34:7 keeping steadfast love for thousands, forgiving iniquity and transgression and sin,… (cf. 2 Sam 12:13; 1 Ki 8:34; Dan 9:9; Mic 7:18)

Psalm 25:11 For thy name’s sake, O LORD, pardon my guilt, for it is great. (cf. 25:7, 18; 32:1-2, 5)

Psalm 51:9 Hide thy face from my sins, and blot out all my iniquities. (cf. 65:3; 79:9; 85:2; 99:8; Is 1:18; 6:6; 44:22)

Psalm 103:12 as far as the east is from the west, so far does he remove our transgressions from us. (cf. 130:4)

Isaiah 43:25 I, I am He who blots out your transgressions for my own sake, and I will not remember your sins. (cf. 55:7; Heb 8:12; 10:2, 17)

Jeremiah 33:8 I will cleanse them from all the guilt of their sin against me, and I will forgive all the guilt of their sin and rebellion against me. (cf. 31:34; Ezek 33:15-16; 1 Jn 1:9)

Luke 5:21 And the scribes and the Pharisees began to question, saying, “Who is this that speaks blasphemies? Who can forgive sins but God only?” (cf. Mk 2:7)

Jesus forgives sins in His own name

Mark 2:5, 10 And when Jesus saw their faith, he said to the paralytic, “My son, your sins are forgiven.”… [10] …the Son of man has authority on earth to forgive sins… (cf. Mt 9:2-6; Lk 5:20-24)

Luke 7:47-48 “Therefore I tell you, her sins, which are many, are forgiven, for she loved much; but he who is forgiven little, loves little.” [48] And he said to her, “Your sins are forgiven.”

9. Receives Prayer

John 16:24 Hitherto you have asked nothing in my name; ask, and you will receive, that your joy may be full. (cf. 14:13-14; 16:23, 26; Rev 5:8)

Acts 7:59 And as they were stoning Stephen, he prayed, “Lord Jesus, receive my spirit.” (cf. Lk 23:46; Ecc 12:7)

1 Corinthians 1:2 …together with all those who in every place call on the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, both their Lord and ours: (cf. Gen 4:26; 26:25; Dt 4:7; Ps 14:4; Is 12:4; Jer 33:3; Joel 2:32; Acts 2:21; 22:6-10; 26:14-16; Rom 10:12-14; 2 Tim 2:22)

10. Sinless and Perfectly Holy

John 8:46 Which of you convicts me of sin?…

2 Corinthians 5:21 …who knew no sin.…

Hebrews 4:15 For we have not a high priest who is unable to sympathize with our weaknesses, but one who in every respect has been tempted as we are, yet without sin. (cf. 7:26; 9:14)

1 Peter 1:19 but with the precious blood of Christ, like that of a lamb without blemish or spot.

1 Peter 2:22 He committed no sin; no guile was found on his lips.

1 John 3:5 You know that he appeared to take away sins, and in him there is no sin.

Many passages refer to God the Father as the “Holy One” (e.g., 2 Ki 19:22; Job 6:10; Ps 71:22; 78:41; 89:18; Is 1:4; 5:24; 17:7; 1 Jn 2:20; Rev 16:5; many others). The same description is used, in turn, to describe Jesus in the New Testament (Mk 1:24; Lk 4:34; Jn 6:69; Acts 2:27; 3:14; 13:35; Rev 3:7). “Holy” is also applied to Jesus, often in the sense of “uniquely or completely holy” (Lk 1:35; Acts 3:14; 4:27, 30): following similar usage as regards God the Father (Lk 1:49; Rev 6:10).

11. Called Lord (Kurios) and God (Theos)

[Kurios is Strong’s word #2962 and Theos is Strong’s word #2316]

God the Father Called “Lord” (Kurios)

Matthew 11:25 At that time Jesus declared, “I thank thee, Father, Lord of heaven and earth, that thou hast hidden these things from the wise and understanding and revealed them to babes;” (cf. Mt 21:42; Mk 13:20; Lk 4:18)

1 Timothy 6:15 …the blessed and only Sovereign, the King of kings and Lord of lords,

God the Son, Jesus, Called “Lord” (Kurios)

Luke 2:11 for to you is born this day in the city of David a Savior, who is Christ the Lord.

Acts 10:36 You know the word which he sent to Israel, preaching good news of peace by Jesus Christ (he is Lord of all), (cf. 7:59)

1 Corinthians 12:3 …no one can say “Jesus is Lord” except by the Holy Spirit.

Philippians 2:10-11 that at the name of Jesus every knee should bow, in heaven and on earth and under the earth, [11] and every tongue confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father. (cf. Heb 1:10)

This cites Isaiah 45:23, and attributes to Jesus what is applied to God there (therefore, Jesus is God): “By myself I have sworn, from my mouth has gone forth in righteousness a word that shall not return: ‘To me every knee shall bow, every tongue shall swear.’”

Revelation 17:14 they will make war on the Lamb, and the Lamb will conquer them, for he is Lord of lords and King of kings, and those with him are called and chosen and faithful. (cf. 19:16)

“Lord of Lords” was applied to God the Father in 1 Timothy 6:15 (above).

God the Father and God the Son, Jesus, Both Called “Lord” (Kurios) in One Passage

Matthew 22:43-45 He said to them, “How is it then that David, inspired by the Spirit, calls him Lord, saying, [44] ‘The Lord said to my Lord, Sit at my right hand, till I put thy enemies under thy feet’? [45] If David thus calls him Lord, how is he his son?” (cf. Mk 12:36-37; Lk 20:42-44; Acts 2:34)

Romans 10:9, 12-13 because, if you confess with your lips that Jesus is Lord and believe in your heart that God raised him from the dead, you will be saved.… [12] For there is no distinction between Jew and Greek; the same Lord is Lord of all and bestows his riches upon all who call upon him. [13] For, “every one who calls upon the name of the Lord will be saved.”

Romans 10:13 cites Joel 2:32: “And it shall come to pass that all who call upon the name of the LORD shall be delivered; for in Mount Zion and in Jerusalem there shall be those who escape, as the LORD has said, and among the survivors shall be those whom the LORD calls.” Thus, the New Testament is applying Old Testament passages about God directly to Jesus, since He is God, and He and His Father are one (John 10:30).

God the Father Called “God” (Theos)

Luke 16:15 …God knows your hearts; for what is exalted among men is an abomination in the sight of God. (cf. Jn 8:47)

Romans 11:1 I ask, then, has God rejected his people? By no means!… (cf. Acts 22:14; Col 3:17; 1 Pet 1:2)

God the Father Called “Lord” (Kurios) and “God” (Theos) in One Passage

Matthew 22:37-38 And he said to him, “You shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, and with all your soul, and with all your mind. [38] This is the great and first commandment.” (cf. Mk 12:29-30; Lk 10:27)

Luke 1:46-47 And Mary said, “My soul magnifies the Lord, [47] and my spirit rejoices in God my Savior,” (cf. 1:32, 68; 20:37; Acts 3:22; Rev 18:8)

God the Son, Jesus, Called “God” (Theos)

Titus 2:13 awaiting our blessed hope, the appearing of the glory of our great God and Savior Jesus Christ, (cf. Mt 1:23; Jn 1:1, 14; Heb 1:8)

2 Peter 1:1 …in the righteousness of our God and Savior Jesus Christ: (cf. 1 Jn 5:20)

God the Son, Jesus, Called “Lord” (Kurios) and “God” (Theos) in One Passage

John 20:28 Thomas answered him, “My Lord and my God!” (cf. Heb 1:8, 10)

12. 50 Descriptions Applied Both to YHWH and Jesus

Name of God: “I AM”

John 8:58 Jesus said to them, “Truly, truly, I say to you, before Abraham was, I am.” (cf. Ex 3:14)

“I am He”

John 8:24 I told you that you would die in your sins, for you will die in your sins unless you believe that I am he. (cf. 8:28; 13:19; Dt 32:39; Is 41:4; 43:10-13; 48:12)

Raises the dead and gives life

John 5:21 For as the Father raises the dead and gives them life, so also the Son gives life to whom he will. (cf. Jn 1:4; 10:28; 1 Jn 5:11; Dt 32:39; 1 Sam 2:6; Rom 4:17)

Shepherd of the flock

John 10:14-15 I am the good shepherd; I know my own and my own know me, [15] as the Father knows me and I know the Father; and I lay down my life for the sheep. (cf. 10:7, 11, 16, 26-29; Ezek 34:23; Mic 5:4; Zech 13:7 with Mt 26:31; Heb 13:20; 1 Pet 5:4; Rev 7:17; Ezek 34:11-12, 15, 22, 31; Ps 23:1; 80:1; 100:3; Is 40:11; Jer 23:1; 31:10)

Source of eternal words

Matthew 24:35 Heaven and earth will pass away, but my words will not pass away. (cf. Is 40:8)

Worshiped and praised by angels

Hebrews 1:6 And again, when he brings the first-born into the world, he says, “Let all God’s angels worship him.” (cf. Ps 148:2)

Bridegroom to the people / Church

Revelation 19:7 Let us rejoice and exult and give him the glory, for the marriage of the Lamb has come, and his Bride has made herself ready; (cf. 21:9; Mt 24:44; 25:1, 6, 13; Jn 3:29; Is 62:5; 54:5-6; Hos 2:16-20)

“Glory” of God

John 17:5 and now, Father, glorify thou me in thy own presence with the glory which I had with thee before the world was made. (cf. 1:14; 16:14; 17:1; Mt 25:31; Lk 2:32; 1 Cor 2:8; Heb 1:3; Is 42:8; 48:11)

Seeker of lost souls

Luke 19:10 For the Son of man came to seek and to save the lost. (cf. Ezek 34:16)

“Lord of Lords”

Revelation 17:14 they will make war on the Lamb, and the Lamb will conquer them, for he is Lord of lords and King of kings,… (cf. 19:16; Dt 10:17; Ps 136:2-3; 1 Tim 6:15)

“Lord of glory”

James 2:1 My brethren, show no partiality as you hold the faith of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Lord of glory. (cf. 1 Cor 2:8; Acts 7:2; Ps 24:7-10; 29:3; Eph 1:17)

“Above all”

John 3:31 …he who comes from heaven is above all. (cf. Eph 1:21; 4:6; 1 Chr 29:11)

“All in all”

Ephesians 1:23 which is his body, the fulness of him who fills all in all. (cf. Col 3:11; 1 Cor 15:28: “all in all” in KJV)

“Over all”

John 17:2 since thou hast given him power over all flesh,… (cf. Rom 9:5; Eph 1:22; Ps 103:19; 47:2; 83:18; 97:9; 99:2; 108:5; Zech 14:9)


John 8:12 …I am the light of the world…. (cf. 1:9; 3:19-21; 9:5; 12:35-36, 46; 1 Jn 1:5; Ps 4:6; 27:1; 36:9; 44:3; 89:15; 90:8; 139:12; Is 2:5; Dan 2:22; Hab 3:4; 1 Tim 6:16; Jas 1:17)

Giver of light

Ephesians 5:14 Therefore it is said, “Awake, O sleeper, and arise from the dead, and Christ shall give you light.” (cf. Mt 4:16; Jn 1:4-5, 9; 8:12; 12:36; Acts 26:23; 2 Cor 4:4, 6; Ps 118:27; 43:3; 119:130; Mic 7:8; 2 Cor 4:6)

Light to replace the sun

Revelation 21:23 And the city has no need of sun or moon to shine upon it, for the glory of God is its light, and its lamp is the Lamb. (cf. Is 60:19-20; Rev 22:5)


Titus 2:14 who gave himself for us to redeem us from all iniquity and to purify for himself a people of his own who are zealous for good deeds. (cf. 1 Cor 1:30; Rom 3:24; Gal 3:13; 4:5; Eph 1:7; Col 1:14; Heb 9:12, 15; Is 47:4; 41:14; 43:14; 44:6, 24; 48:17; 49:7, 26; 54:5, 8; 60:16; 63:16; Ps 19:14; 78:35; Jer 50:34)


1 Timothy 2:6 who gave himself as a ransom for all, the testimony to which was borne at the proper time. (cf. Mt 20:28; Mk 10:45; 1 Pet 1:18-19; Rev 5:9; Ps 49:15; Is 35:10; 51:11; Jer 31:11; Hos 13:14)

“First and last”

Revelation 1:17 …Fear not, I am the first and the last, (cf. 2:8; 22:13, 16; Is 44:6; 48:12)

“Alpha and Omega”

Revelation 22:13 I am the Alpha and the Omega,… [identified as Jesus in 22:16] (cf. Rev 1:8; 21:6)

“Beginning and the end”

Revelation 22:13 I am… the beginning and the end. [identified as Jesus in 22:16] (cf. 21:6)

Satisfier of spiritual thirst

John 4:14 but whoever drinks of the water that I shall give him will never thirst; the water that I shall give him will become in him a spring of water welling up to eternal life. (cf. 6:35; 7:37; Rev 21:6; 22:17)

All-powerful “hand”

John 10:28 and I give them eternal life, and they shall never perish, and no one shall snatch them out of my hand. (cf. Dt 32:39; Jn 10:29)

Sound of “many waters”

Revelation 1:15 …his voice was like the sound of many waters; (cf. Ezek 43:2)

“Horn of salvation”

Luke 1:69 …raised up a horn of salvation for us in the house of his servant David, (cf. 2 Sam 22:3; Ps 18:2)

Divine disciplinarian

Revelation 3:19 Those whom I love, I reprove and chasten; so be zealous and repent. (cf. Prov 3:12)

Destroyer of death

2 Timothy 1:10 …our Savior Christ Jesus, who abolished death and brought life and immortality to light through the gospel. (cf. Is 25:8)

Rewarder according to works

Matthew 16:27 For the Son of man… will repay every man for what he has done. (cf. Rev 22:12; Ps 62:12; Is 40:10)

Separator of sheep and goats

Matthew 25:32 Before him will be gathered all the nations, and he will separate them one from another as a shepherd separates the sheep from the goats, (cf. Ezek 34:17)

Receiver of glory

2 Peter 3:18 …our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ. To him be the glory both now and to the day of eternity. Amen. (cf. Rom 16:27; Heb 13:21; Rev 1:6; Gal 1:4-5; Rom 11:36; Eph 3:21; Phil 4:20; 2 Tim 4:18; Jude 1:25)

Kingdom of whom?

Colossians 1:13 He has delivered us from the dominion of darkness and transferred us to the kingdom of his beloved Son, (cf. Jn 18:36; Eph 5:5; 2 Tim 4:1; Heb 1:8; 2 Pet 1:1; Jn 3:5; Mt 21:31; Lk 7:28; Acts 1:3; Rom 14:17; 1 Cor 4:20; 15:50; Col 4:11; Rev 12:10)

“For whom all things exist”

Colossians 1:16 …all things were created through him and for him. (cf. Mt 11:27; Jn 3:35; 13:3; Phil 3:21; Heb 2:10; Rom 11:36)

“Through him are all things”

Colossians 1:20 and through him to reconcile to himself all things, whether on earth or in heaven, making peace by the blood of his cross. (cf. 1:16; Rom 11:36)

“To him are all things”

Philippians 3:21 …the power which enables him even to subject all things to himself. (cf. Heb 2:8; 1 Pet 3:22; Rom 11:36; 1 Cor 15:28; Col 1:20)


2 Peter 1:16 For we did not follow cleverly devised myths when we made known to you the power and coming of our Lord Jesus Christ, but we were eyewitnesses of his majesty. (cf. Mic 5:4; Heb 1:3; 8:1; Ps 93:1; 104:1; 145:5; Is 26:10; 35:2; Lk 9:43; Jude 1:25)

“The Spirit of.…”

Acts 16:7 …the Spirit of Jesus… (cf. Rom 8:9: “the Spirit of Christ”; Gal 4:6; Phil 1:19; 1 Pet 1:11; Rom 8:9: “Spirit of God”; 8:11, 14; Gen 1:2; Ex 31:3; Num 24:2; Jud 6:34; 11:29; 1 Sam 10:6; 16:13; Is 61:1; Ezek 11:24; 37:1; Mic 2:7; Mt 3:16; 12:28; Jn 15:26; Acts 5:9; 1 Cor 2:11-12, 14; 6:11; 7:40; 12:3; 2 Cor 3:3, 17; 1 Pet 4:14; 1 Jn 4:2)

“Our hope”

1 Timothy 1:1 …Christ Jesus our hope, (cf. 1 Tim 4:10; Jer 14:22)


Revelation 1:5 …Jesus Christ the faithful witness, the first-born of the dead, and the ruler of kings on earth.… (cf. Mic 5:2; Is 33:22)

“Mighty God”

Isaiah 9:6 For to us a child is born, to us a son is given; …and his name will be called “Wonderful Counselor, Mighty God, Everlasting Father, Prince of Peace.” (cf. Is 10:21; Dt 10:17; Neh 9:32; Jer 32:18)

Source of grace for salvation

Acts 15:11 But we believe that we shall be saved through the grace of the Lord Jesus,… (cf. Titus 2:11)

Sender of prophets

Matthew 23:34 Therefore I send you prophets and wise men and scribes, some of whom you will kill and crucify, and some you will scourge in your synagogues and persecute from town to town, (cf. Jud 6:8; 2 Ki 17:13; 2 Chr 24:19; Jer 7:25; 25:4; 26:5; 29:19; 35:15; 44:4; Hag 1:12; Zech 7:12)

Divine “wings”

Luke 13:34 O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, killing the prophets and stoning those who are sent to you! How often would I have gathered your children together as a hen gathers her brood under her wings, and you would not! (cf. Mt 23:37; Dt 32:11-12; Ruth 2:12; Ps 36:7; 57:1; 63:7; 91:4)

Angels of whom?

Matthew 13:41 The Son of man will send his angels, and they will gather out of his kingdom all causes of sin and all evildoers, (cf. 16:27; 24:31; 2 Thess 1:7; Lk 15:10; Gen 28:12; 32:1; Lk 12:8-9; Jn 1:51; Heb 1:6; Rev 3:5)

Sender of angels

Revelation 22:16 I Jesus have sent my angel to you…. (cf. Rev 22:6)

“His saints”

1 Thessalonians 3:13 …the coming of our Lord Jesus with all his saints. (cf. 2 Thess 1:10; Ps 97:10; 30:4; 31:23; 34:9; 37:28; 85:8; 116:15; 148:14; Prov 2:8; Col 1:26-27)

Gospel of whom?

Romans 15:19 …the gospel of Christ, (cf. 1:16; 1 Cor 9:12; 2 Cor 2:12; 1 Thess 3:2; Rom 1:1; 15:16; Mk 1:14; 1 Thess 2:2, 8-9; 1 Pet 4:17)

Church of whom?

Matthew 16:18 And I tell you, you are Peter, and on this rock I will build my church,… (cf. Rom 16:16; Gal 1:22; 1 Cor 15:9; 10:32; 11:22; Acts 20:28; Gal 1:13; 1 Tim 3:15)

Servants of whom?

Romans 1:1 Paul, a servant of Jesus Christ,… (cf. Eph 6:6; Col 3:24; servants of both: Jas 1:1; Rev 7:3; 11:18; 19:5; Titus 1:1; Lk 4:8; Rom 12:11)

Sanctified by whom?

Hebrews 13:12 So Jesus also suffered outside the gate in order to sanctify the people through his own blood. (cf. 10:10, 14; Acts 26:18; 1 Cor 1:2, 30; 6:11; Eph 5:26; Lev 20:8; 21:8, 15, 23; 22:9, 16, 32; Ex 31:13; Ezek 20:12; 37:28; Jn 17:17; 1 Thess 5:23)

13. Image of the Invisible Father

God the Father is Invisible

John 1:18 No one has ever seen God…. (cf. 1 Jn 4:12)

John 5:37 …his form you have never seen; (cf. 6:46)

Colossians 1:15 …the invisible God…. (cf. 1 Tim 1:17)

1 Timothy 6:16 who alone has immortality and dwells in unapproachable light, whom no man has ever seen or can see.…

Jesus Reveals, and is the Image of the Father

John 14:7-9 “If you had known me, you would have known my Father also; henceforth you know him and have seen him.” [8] Philip said to him, “Lord, show us the Father, and we shall be satisfied.” [9] Jesus said to him, “Have I been with you so long, and yet you do not know me, Philip? He who has seen me has seen the Father; how can you say, ‘Show us the Father’?” (cf. 12:45)

Colossians 1:15 He is the image of the invisible God,… (cf. 2 Cor 4:4; Heb 1:3)

14. Primacy of the Name of Jesus

We find the phrase, “the name of the Lord” about fifty times in the Old Testament and eleven times in the New Testament. In the latter, “name of God” is found seven times and “the name of the Father” eight times, but the “name” as referring to Jesus occurs at least 91 times.

Jesus is the fullest revelation of God, and the One through Whom the Father is now speaking (Hebrews 1:1-2). Hence, we find an overwhelming emphasis on His name in the New Testament:

1) Salvation and Faith in Jesus’ Name: Mt 12:21; Jn 1:12; 2:23; 3:18; Acts 4:10, 12; 10:43; 22:16; Rom 10:9; 1 Cor 6:11; 1 Jn 3:23; 5:13.

2) Jesus: the Most Important Name: 1 Cor 1:2; Eph 1:20-21; Phil 2:9-11 (cf. Is 45:23); 2 Thess 1:12; 1 Jn 3:23; Rev 2:3, 13.

3) Who Are We “Witnesses” of?: Acts 1:8 But you shall receive power when the Holy Spirit has come upon you; and you shall be my witnesses in Jerusalem and in all Judea and Sama’ria and to the end of the earth. (Jesus speaking: 1:1, 11)

4) Jesus Talks About the Importance of His Name: Mt 7:22; 10:22; 12:15-21; 18:5, 20; 19:29; 24:9; 28:19-20.

5) Christians Are Baptized in Jesus’ Name: Mt 28:19; Acts 2:38; 8:16; 10:48; 19:5; 1 Cor 1:13, 15.

6) Christians Suffer For Jesus’ Name: Acts 5:41; 9:16; 15:26; 21:13.

7) Christians Gather in Jesus’ Name: Mt 18:20; 1 Cor 5:4.

8) Men Healed in Jesus’ Name: Acts 3:6, 16; 4:10, 30.

9) Christians Speak, Teach and Preach in Jesus’ Name: Lk 24:47; Acts 4:17-18; 5:28; 8:12; 9:27, 29.

10) Christians Named After Jesus Christ: Acts 11:26; 1 Pet 4:16.

11) Remission of Sins in Jesus’ Name: Acts 10:43; 1 Jn 2:12.

12) Jesus is Called “Lord of Lords”: Rev 19:16.

13) Christians Are to Give Thanks and Praise in Jesus’ Name: Eph 5:20; Heb 13:15.

14) Christians Are to Do All Things in Jesus’ Name: Col 3:17.

15. Claims to be the Messiah (Christ)

Every time the New Testament refers to Jesus as Christ, it is declaring that He is the Messiah, since Christ is the Greek for the Hebrew Messiah. The latter word appears twice in the New Testament in the RSV, and in both cases, it is shown that Christ is the equivalent term:

John 1:41 He first found his brother Simon, and said to him, “We have found the Messiah” (which means Christ).

John 4:25-26 The woman said to him, “I know that Messiah is coming (he who is called Christ); when he comes, he will show us all things.” [26] Jesus said to her, “I who speak to you am he.”

Other verses provide further evidence:

Matthew 16:16-17, 20 Simon Peter replied, “You are the Christ, the Son of the living God.” [17] And Jesus answered him, “Blessed are you, Simon Bar-Jona! For flesh and blood has not revealed this to you, but my Father who is in heaven.”… [20] Then he strictly charged the disciples to tell no one that he was the Christ. (cf. Mk 8:27-30; 9:41; Lk 4:41; 9:18-21)

Mark 14:61-62 But he was silent and made no answer. Again the high priest asked him, “Are you the Christ, the Son of the Blessed?” [62] And Jesus said, “I am; and you will see the Son of man seated at the right hand of Power, and coming with the clouds of heaven.” (cf. Mt 26:63-65; Lk 22:67-71; 24:25-27)

See also Mt 1:16-18; 5:17; 11:2, 10; 21:42; 24:5, 23-24; 26:56, 68; 27:17, 22; Mk 3:11; 5:7; 13:21-22, 26; Lk 1:31-33; 2:11, 26; 4:20-21; 22:37; 23:2, 35, 39; 24:44; Jn 5:39-40, 46-47; 15:25.

Son of Man When Jesus calls Himself “the Son of Man” (e.g., Mt 10:23, 32-33; 19:28; 23:37 ff.; 24:47; Mk 2:19-20; 3:28-29; 8:31, 38; 9:9, 31; 10:33, 38; 14:21, 41; Lk 11:30; 12:8, 49-50; 17:24; 18:6, 8; 21:36; 22:27, 48), He is claiming to be the Messiah, since He is referring (especially in Mk 13:26; 14:62; Jn 5:27; cf. Rev 1:13; 14:14) to a well-known messianic passage:

Daniel 7:13-14 I saw in the night visions, and behold, with the clouds of heaven there came one like a son of man, and he came to the Ancient of Days and was presented before him. [14] And to him was given dominion and glory and kingdom, that all peoples, nations, and languages should serve him; his dominion is an everlasting dominion, which shall not pass away, and his kingdom one that shall not be destroyed.

In Mark 14:61-62, Jesus assumes that the Christ (Messiah) and the Son of Man are one and the same (Himself). Matthew 16:16-17 establishes the fact that the Messiah and “the Son of God” are identical as well. The latter term is used of Jesus 43 times in the New Testament, in RSV.

16. YHWH, the Messiah, and Jesus: Six Parallel Attributes

[passages applying to YHWH are presented first, followed by italicized passages about the (Old Testament) Messiah, and lastly, verses about Jesus]

The Savior

Isaiah 43:11 I am the LORD, and besides me there is no savior. (cf. 43:3; 45:15, 21; 49:26; 60:16, 63:8; Hos 13:4)

1 Timothy 4:10 …the living God, who is the Savior of all men, especially of those who believe. (cf. 1:1; 2:10; Lk 1:47; Titus 1:3; 2:10; 3:4; Jude 1:25)

Isaiah 49:6 It is too light a thing that you should be my servant to raise up the tribes of Jacob and to restore the preserved of Israel; I will give you as a light to the nations, that my salvation may reach to the end of the earth.

Isaiah 53:5, 11-12 But he was wounded for our transgressions, he was bruised for our iniquities; upon him was the chastisement that made us whole, and with his stripes we are healed.… [11] …my servant, make many to be accounted righteous; and he shall bear their iniquities. [12] …he poured out his soul to death, and was numbered with the transgressors; yet he bore the sin of many, and made intercession for the transgressors. (cf. 52:10; 59:16; 63:5; Zech 9:9)

Luke 2:11 …a Savior, who is Christ the Lord. (cf. Jn 1:29; 4:42; 5:24; 10:9; Acts 5:31; 13:23)

Titus 2:13 …our great God and Savior Jesus Christ, (cf. 1:4; 3:6; Phil 3:20; 2 Tim 1:10

2 Peter 1:1 …our God and Savior Jesus Christ: (cf. 1:11; 2 Pet 2:20; 3:18; 1 Jn 4:14; also, one passage puts both together: Jude 1:25: “the only God, our Savior through Jesus Christ our Lord”)

Served and Exalted

Deuteronomy 6:13 You shall fear the LORD your God; you shall serve him, and swear by his name. (cf. 10:20; 13:4; Jer 30:9)

Isaiah 45:23 …To me every knee shall bow, every tongue shall swear. (cf. Rom 14:11)

Revelation 1:6 …God and Father, to him be glory and dominion for ever and ever. Amen.

Daniel 7:14 And to him was given dominion and glory and kingdom, that all peoples, nations, and languages should serve him; his dominion is an everlasting dominion, which shall not pass away, and his kingdom one that shall not be destroyed. (cf. Ps 2:12)

Isaiah 52:13 Behold, my servant shall prosper, he shall be exalted and lifted up, and shall be very high.

Ephesians 1:20-22 which he accomplished in Christ when he raised him from the dead and made him sit at his right hand in the heavenly places, [21] far above all rule and authority and power and dominion, and above every name that is named, not only in this age but also in that which is to come; [22] and he has put all things under his feet and has made him the head over all things for the church,

Philippians 2:9-11 Therefore God has highly exalted him and bestowed on him the name which is above every name, [10] that at the name of Jesus every knee should bow, in heaven and on earth and under the earth, [11] and every tongue confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father.

Second Coming

Isaiah 40:10 Behold, the Lord GOD comes with might, and his arm rules for him; behold, his reward is with him, and his recompense before him. (cf. 40:5; Ps 96:13; 98:9)

Isaiah 66:15-16 For behold, the LORD will come in fire, and his chariots like the stormwind, to render his anger in fury, and his rebuke with flames of fire. [16] For by fire will the LORD execute judgment, and by his sword, upon all flesh; and those slain by the LORD shall be many. (cf. 59:20; Joel 2:11; Zech 2:10)

Zechariah 9:14 Then the LORD will appear over them, and his arrow go forth like lightning; the Lord GOD will sound the trumpet, and march forth in the whirlwinds of the south.

Zechariah 12:10 …when they look on him whom they have pierced, they shall mourn for him, as one mourns for an only child, and weep bitterly over him, as one weeps over a first-born. (cf. Jn 19:37)

Zechariah 14:3-5 Then the LORD will go forth and fight against those nations as when he fights on a day of battle. [4] On that day his feet shall stand on the Mount of Olives which lies before Jerusalem on the east; and the Mount of Olives shall be split in two from east to west by a very wide valley;… [5]…. Then the LORD your God will come, and all the holy ones with him.

Isaiah 11:4 …he shall smite the earth with the rod of his mouth, and with the breath of his lips he shall slay the wicked.

Daniel 7:13 I saw in the night visions, and behold, with the clouds of heaven there came one like a son of man, and he came to the Ancient of Days and was presented before him.

Matthew 24:30 then will appear the sign of the Son of man in heaven, and then all the tribes of the earth will mourn, and they will see the Son of man coming on the clouds of heaven with power and great glory; (Mt 16:27; 26:64; Mk 14:62)

Acts 1:11-12 …“This Jesus, who was taken up from you into heaven, will come in the same way as you saw him go into heaven.” [12] Then they returned to Jerusalem from the mount called Olivet, which is near Jerusalem… (cf. Zech 14:4)

2 Thessalonians 1:7-8 …when the Lord Jesus is revealed from heaven with his mighty angels in flaming fire, [8] inflicting vengeance upon those who do not know God and upon those who do not obey the gospel of our Lord Jesus. (cf. Rev 22:12)

2 Thessalonians 2:8 And then the lawless one will be revealed, and the Lord Jesus will slay him with the breath of his mouth and destroy him by his appearing and his coming.

Revelation 1:7 Behold, he is coming with the clouds, and every eye will see him, every one who pierced him; and all tribes of the earth will wail on account of him.… (cf. Zech 12:10)

Revelation 19:15 From his mouth issues a sharp sword with which to smite the nations, and he will rule them with a rod of iron; he will tread the wine press of the fury of the wrath of God the Almighty. (cf. 19:11, 13, 16, 19, 21; Is 49:2)


1 Samuel 2:10 …The LORD will judge the ends of the earth… (cf. Gen 18:25; 1 Chr 16:33; Ps 7:11; 9:8; 96:10; Is 2:4; 33:22)

Psalm 50:6 The heavens declare his righteousness, for God himself is judge! (cf. 58:11; 67:4; 82:8; 94:2; Jer 11:20)

Ecclesiastes 12:14 For God will bring every deed into judgment, with every secret thing, whether good or evil. (cf. 3:17; Ezek 18:30; 33:20; Joel 3:12)

Zephaniah 1:14-15 The great day of the LORD is near, near and hastening fast; the sound of the day of the LORD is bitter, the mighty man cries aloud there. [15] A day of wrath is that day, a day of distress and anguish, a day of ruin and devastation, a day of darkness and gloom, a day of clouds and thick darkness,

Psalm 2:9 You shall break them with a rod of iron, and dash them in pieces like a potter’s vessel.

Psalm 110:5-6 The Lord is at your right hand; he will shatter kings on the day of his wrath. [6] He will execute judgment among the nations, filling them with corpses; he will shatter chiefs over the wide earth.

John 5:22, 27 The Father judges no one, but has given all judgment to the Son,… [27] and has given him authority to execute judgment, because he is the Son of man. (cf. 9:39)

Acts 10:42 …he is the one ordained by God to be judge of the living and the dead. (cf. 2 Tim 4:1)

Acts 17:31 because he has fixed a day on which he will judge the world in righteousness by a man whom he has appointed, and of this he has given assurance to all men by raising him from the dead.

Revelation 14:14-16 Then I looked, and lo, a white cloud, and seated on the cloud one like a son of man, with a golden crown on his head, and a sharp sickle in his hand. [15] And another angel came out of the temple, calling with a loud voice to him who sat upon the cloud, “Put in your sickle, and reap, for the hour to reap has come, for the harvest of the earth is fully ripe.” [16] So he who sat upon the cloud swung his sickle on the earth, and the earth was reaped. (cf. 6:16-17; 19:11)


1 Samuel 12:12 …the LORD your God was your king. (cf. Ps 95:3)

Psalm 10:16 The LORD is king for ever and ever; (cf. 24:8, 10; 47:2; 84:3; 98:6; 103:19; Zech 14:9, 16)

Isaiah 33:22 …the LORD is our ruler, the LORD is our king; he will save us. (cf. 43:15; 44:6; Jer 10:10; Mic 4:7; 1 Tim 1:17; Rev 15:3)

Psalm 2:6 I have set my king on Zion, my holy hill. (cf. 2:7-8)

Isaiah 9:7 Of the increase of his government and of peace there will be no end, upon the throne of David, and over his kingdom,…

Jeremiah 23:5 Behold, the days are coming, says the LORD, when I will raise up for David a righteous Branch, and he shall reign as king and deal wisely, and shall execute justice and righteousness in the land. (cf. 30:9)

Ezekiel 37:24-25 My servant David shall be king over them; and they shall all have one shepherd. They shall follow my ordinances and be careful to observe my statutes. [25] …David my servant shall be their prince for ever.

Luke 1:32-33 …the Lord God will give to him the throne of his father David, [33] and he will reign over the house of Jacob for ever; and of his kingdom there will be no end. (cf. 22:29-30; Mt 21:5; 25:34, 40; Col 1:13; Heb 1:8; 2 Pet 1:11; Rev 11:15)

John 18:37 Pilate said to him, “So you are a king?” Jesus answered, “You say that I am a king. For this I was born, and for this I have come into the world,…” (cf. 1:49; 12:13, 15; 18:36; Mt 27:11; Mk 15:2)

Revelation 12:5 she brought forth a male child, one who is to rule all the nations with a rod of iron, but her child was caught up to God and to his throne,

Revelation 17:14 …he is Lord of lords and King of kings…. (cf. 19:16; 1 Tim 6:15)

God’s Throne

1 Kings 22:19 …I saw the LORD sitting on his throne.…

Psalm 11:4 …the LORD’s throne is in heaven;… (cf. 47:8; 93:2)

Revelation 4:10 the twenty-four elders fall down before him who is seated on the throne and worship him who lives for ever and ever…. (cf. 7:10; 19:4)

Ezekiel 1:26 And above the firmament over their heads there was the likeness of a throne, in appearance like sapphire; and seated above the likeness of a throne was a likeness as it were of a human form.

Ezekiel 43:7 and he said to me, “Son of man, this is the place of my throne and the place of the soles of my feet, where I will dwell in the midst of the people of Israel for ever.… “

Matthew 19:28 …the Son of man shall sit on his glorious throne…. (cf. 25:31)

Revelation 7:17 For the Lamb in the midst of the throne will be their shepherd,…

Revelation 22:1 …the throne of God and of the Lamb…. (cf. 22:3)

17. 50 Old Testament Messianic Prophecies Fulfilled

The apostles often appeal to messianic promises and fulfilled prophecies as evidence of the Messiahship and Divinity of Jesus Christ (e.g., Mt 2:4-6; Rom 1:2-4; Acts 3:18; 10:43; 13:29; 17:2-3; 1 Cor 15:3-4; 1 Pet 2:5-6). Here is a summary of such messianic prophecies:

1) Born of a Virgin: Is 7:14 and Mt 1:18, 24-25; Lk 1:26-35.

2) From the Tribe of Judah: Gen 49:10; Mic 5:2 and Mt 1:2; Lk 3:23, 33.

3) From the Family Line of Jesse: Is 11:1, 10 and Mt 1:6; Lk 3:23, 32.

4) From the House of David: Ps 132:11; Jer 23:5 and Mt 1:1; Lk 3:23, 31.

5) Born in Bethlehem: Mic 5:2 and Mt 2:1, 4-8; Lk 2:4-7.

6) Called Son of God: Ps 2:7 and Mt 3:17.

7) Called Lord: Ps 110:1; Jer 23:6 and Mt 22:43-45; Lk 2:11.

8) Called Immanuel (God With Us): Is 7:14 and Mt 1:23.

9) A Prophet: Deut 18:18 and Mt 21:11; Lk 7:16; Jn 7:40.

10) Judge: Is 33:22 and Jn 5:30.

11) King: Ps 2:6 and Mt 21:5; Jn 18:36-37.

12) Special Anointing of the Spirit: Is 11:2 and Mt 3:16-17.

13) Preceded by a Messenger: Is 40:3; Mal 3:1 and Mt 3:1-3; 11:10; Lk 1:17; Jn 1:23.

14) Galilee Ministry: Is 9:1 and Mt 4:12-13, 17.

15) Ministry of Miracles: Is 32:3-4; 35:5-6 and Mt 9:32-35.

16) Teacher of Parables: Ps 78:2 and Mt 13:34.

17) Triumphal Entry Into Jerusalem: Zech 9:9 and Mt 21:5-10, 15-16.

18) Messiah to Come Before Jerusalem’s Destruction (70 A.D.): Gen 49:10 and Mt 24:1-2.

19) Messiah Will Come to the Temple (Had to be Before 70): Ps 118:26; Dan 9:26; Hag 2:7-9; Zech 11:13; Mal 3:1 and Mt 21:12; Jn 2:13-17.

20) Entered Jerusalem on a Donkey: Zech 9:9 and Lk 19:35-37.

21) “Stone of Stumbling”: Ps 118:22; Is 8:13-14; 28:16 and Acts 4:10-11; Rom 9:32-33; 1 Pet 2:7-8.

22) Rejected by His Own People: Is 53:3 and Jn 1:11; 7:5, 48.

23) Hated Without a Cause: Ps 69:4; Is 49:7 and Jn 15:25.

24) Resurrection: Ps 16:10; 30:3; 41:10; 118:17; Hos 6:2 and Acts 2:31; 13:33; Mt 28:6; Mk 16:6; Lk 24:46.

25) Ascension: Ps 68:18 and Acts 1:9.

26) Right Hand of God: Ps 110:1 and Heb 1:3; Acts 2:34-35.

The following 24 prophecies were literally fulfilled by Jesus in one 24-hour period of time:

27) Betrayed by a Friend: Ps 41:9; 55:12-14 and Mt 10:4.

28) Betrayed For 30 Pieces of Silver: Zec 11:12 and Mt 26:15.

29) Silver Thrown in God’s House: Zech 11:13 and Mt 27:5.

30) The Potter’s Field: Zech 11:13 and Mt 27:7.

31) Forsaken by Disciples: Zech 13:7 and Mt 26:31; Mk 14:50.

32) Silent Before Accusers: Is 53:7 and Mt 27:12.

33) Wounded and Bruised: Is 53:5; Zech 13:6 and Mt 27:26.

34) Beaten: Is 50:6; Mic 5:1 and Mt 26:67; Lk 22:63.

35) Spit Upon: Is 50:6 and Mt 26:67.

36) Mocked: Ps 22:7-8 and Mt 27:31.

37) Hands and Feet Pierced: Ps 22:16; Zec 12:10 and Lk 23:33.

38) Messiah Was to Die: Is 53:8; Dan 9:26 and Lk 23:46; 24:7; Jn 19:30.

39) Executed With Criminals: Is 53:12 and Mt 27:38.

40) Prayed For His Persecutors: Is 53:12 and Lk 23:34.

41) People Wagging Their Heads: Ps 22:7 and Mt 27:39.

42) Stared Upon: Ps 22:17 and Lk 23:35.

43) Garments Parted: Ps 22:18 and Jn 19:23.

44) Garments Gambled For: Ps 22:18 and Jn 19:24.

45) Offered Vinegar and Gall: Ps 69:21 and Mt 27:34; Jn 19:29.

46) Forsaken Cry: Ps 22:1 and Mt 27:46.

47) Bones Not Broken: Ps 34:20 and Jn 19:33.

48) Side Pierced: Zech 12:10 and Jn 19:34.

49) Darkness at Noon: Amos 8:9 and Mt 27:45.

50) Buried in Rich Man’s Tomb: Is 53:9 and Mt 27:57-60.

18. Jesus’ Subjection (as Messiah) to the Father

Jesus’ subjection to the Father is seen in such verses as John 14:28: “…the Father is greater than I,” 1 Corinthians 11:3: “…the head of Christ is God,” and 1 Corinthians 15:28: “When all things are subjected to him, then the Son himself will also be subjected to him.…”

These verses and others have been utilized historically by heretics such as the Arians (of whom Jehovah’s Witnesses are a revival), as well as non-trinitarian theists such as Unitarians, to allegedly “prove” that Jesus is lesser than the Father and therefore not God in the flesh. Upon closer inspection, however, a clearer picture emerges.

John 14:28 is to be understood in light of passages such as Philippians 2:6-8, which shows us that Christ in John 14:28 was speaking strictly in terms of his office as Messiah, which entailed a giving up, not of the Divine Nature, but of certain prerogatives of glory and Deity which are enjoyed by the Father. Christ subjected Himself to the Father in order to undertake His role as the Incarnate Son and Mediator between God and man (1 Tim 2:5).

Similarly, one might say that “the President of the United States is a greater man than I am,” but this would not mean he was necessarily a better man. In any event, he is still a man like us. Jesus is still God, even while “humbling” Himself (Phil 2:8).

When the Father is called the “head” of the Son (1 Cor 11:3), this also does not entail any lessening of the equality between the Son and the Father. The Bible also talks about wives being subject to their husbands (1 Pet 3:1, 5), even while the two are equals (Gal 3:28; Eph 5:21-22), and indeed, “one flesh” (Mt 19:5-6).

Likewise, one Person of the Godhead can be in subjection to another Person and remain God in essence and substance (Phil 2:6-8). Luke 2:51 says that Jesus was “subject” to Mary and Joseph. Yet no orthodox Christian of any stripe would hold that Jesus was lesser in essence than His earthly parents! The same Greek word for “subject” in Luke 2:51 (hupotasso) is used in 1 Corinthians 15:28, and in 1 Peter 2:18 below. Besides, submissiveness and servanthood is not presented as a sign of weakness in Scripture. Quite the contrary:

Matthew 23:11-12 He who is greatest among you shall be your servant; [12] whoever exalts himself will be humbled, and whoever humbles himself will be exalted.

1 Peter 2:18 Servants, be submissive to your masters with all respect,…

The word for “greatest” in Matthew 23:11 is meizon, the same word used in John 14:28. Thus, any notion that submissiveness is a lessening of equality is absolutely unscriptural. Likewise, in 1 Corinthians 15:28, the subjection spoken of is that of the Son as incarnate, not the Son as Son in essence. While this verse tells us that God will be “everything to every one” Colossians 3:11 tells us that “Christ is all, and in all.” Thus, Jesus’ office as Messiah and Mediator will cease in time, but not His Godhood, since Scripture teaches that He will be “all in all” just as His Father is.


[see also the companion paper: Holy Trinity: Hundreds of Biblical Proofs (RSV Edition) ]


(initial research from 1982 [using KJV]; slightly revised in 1997; revised and reformatted for RSV edition in 2012)

Photo credit: my book, Theology of God: available for purchase, for as low as $2.99 in e-book formats. The material above was drawn from this book.


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