Deuterocanonical References (?) in the Gospels

Deuterocanonical References (?) in the Gospels February 18, 2016
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Torah scroll: Big Synagogue Museum, Wlodawa, Poland [Wikimedia Commons /  Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license]
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(2-1-05 [Matthew] / 7-13-05 [Mark, Luke, and John] )

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Derived from pp. 800-804 of the Nestle-Aland Greek New Testament, 27th edition (Novum Testamentum: Graece et Latine, published by Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft; see the web page from Catholic apologist Jimmy Akin, which reproduced the list. I have also added my own suggested comparisons and possible parallels; these will be reproduced in green (NT); otherwise NT passages listed in Nestle-Aland will be in blue, and deuterocanonical passages in red. Alleged references listed by verse only at the end were deemed (by myself) dissimilar and questionable or non-convincing enough to not reproduce.[Bible passages were retrieved from the RSV Bible, with Apocrypha, from the University of Virginia Electronic Text Center]

A Reformed Protestant wondered aloud what the purpose of collecting these possible references would be (if not apologetic in nature, as some sort of “proof” of the canonicity of the deuterocanonical or so-called “apocryphal” books). I agree with my friend Jimmy Akin’s comments in the above-cited web page:

I get a lot of requests for a list of the references the New Testament makes to the deuterocanonical books of the Old Testament. Unfortunately, giving a list is not such a simple affair since it is not always obvious whether something is a genuine reference.

Hebrews 11:35 is an indisputable reference to 2 Maccabees 7, but many are not so clear as there may be only a single phrase that echoes one in a deuterocanonical book (and this may not be obvious in the translation, but only the original languages).

This is the same with New Testament references to the protocanonical books of the Old Testament. How many New Testament references there are to the Old Testament depends in large measure on what you are going to count as a reference.

As a result, many scholarly works simply give an enormous catalogue of all proposed references and leave it to the individual interpreter to decide whether a given reference is actual or not.

I will follow the same procedure . . .

So will I. This project is not, strictly-speaking, an exercise in apologetics, but rather, an aid in Bible study or a Bible “reference” tool.

* * * * *
MATTHEW

1a) Matthew 4:4

But he answered, “It is written, `Man shall not live by bread alone, but by every word that proceeds from the mouth of God.'”

1b) Wisdom 16:26

so that thy sons, whom thou didst love, O Lord, might learn that it is not the production of crops that feeds man, but that thy word preserves those who trust in thee.

2a) Matthew 4:15

“The land of Zeb’ulun and the land of Naph’tali, toward the sea, across the Jordan, Galilee of the Gentiles —

2b) 1 Maccabees 5:15

they said that against them had gathered together men of Ptolemais and Tyre and Sidon, and all Galilee of the Gentiles, “to annihilate us.”

3a) Matthew 5:18

For truly, I say to you, till heaven and earth pass away, not an iota, not a dot, will pass from the law until all is accomplished.

3b) Baruch 4:1

She is the book of the commandments of God, and the law that endures for ever. All who hold her fast will live, and those who forsake her will die.

4a) Matthew 5:28 

But I say to you that every one who looks at a woman lustfully has already committed adultery with her in his heart.

4b) Sirach 9:8

Turn away your eyes from a shapely woman, and do not look intently at beauty belonging to another; many have been misled by a woman’s beauty, and by it passion is kindled like a fire.

5a) Matthew 5:4 

“Blessed are those who mourn, for they shall be comforted.

5b) Sirach 48:24

By the spirit of might he saw the last things, and comforted those who mourned in Zion.

6a) Matthew 6:7

“And in praying do not heap up empty phrases as the Gentiles do; for they think that they will be heard for their many words.

6b) Sirach 7:14

Do not prattle in the assembly of the elders, nor repeat yourself in your prayer.

7a) Matthew 6:9

Pray then like this: Our Father who art in heaven, Hallowed be thy name.

7b) Sirach 23:1,4

O Lord, Father and Ruler of my life, do not abandon me to their counsel, and let me not fall because of them!

O Lord, Father and God of my life, do not give me haughty eyes,

8a) Matthew 6:10

Thy kingdom come. Thy will be done, On earth as it is in heaven.

8b) 1 Maccabees 3:60

But as his will in heaven may be, so he will do.”

9a) Matthew 6:12

And forgive us our debts, As we also have forgiven our debtors;

9b) Sirach 28:2

Forgive your neighbor the wrong he has done, and then your sins will be pardoned when you pray.

10a) Matthew 6:13

And lead us not into temptation, But deliver us from evil.

10b) Sirach 33:1

No evil will befall the man who fears the Lord, but in trial he will deliver him again and again.

11a) Matthew 6:20

but lay up for yourselves treasures in heaven, where neither moth nor rust consumes and where thieves do not break in and steal.

11b) Sirach 29:10s 

10: Lose your silver for the sake of a brother or a friend, and do not let it rust under a stone and be lost.
11: Lay up your treasure according to the commandments of the Most High, and it will profit you more than gold.
12: Store up almsgiving in your treasury, and it will rescue you from all affliction;

12a) Matthew 7:12 

So whatever you wish that men would do to you, do so to them; for this is the law and the prophets.

12b) Tobit 4:15 [a] 

And what you hate, do not do to any one . . .

12c) Sirach 31:15 

Judge your neighbor’s feelings by your own, and in every matter be thoughtful.

13a) Matthew 7:16 

You will know them by their fruits. Are grapes gathered from thorns, or figs from thistles?

13b) Sirach 27:6 

The fruit discloses the cultivation of a tree; so the expression of a thought discloses the cultivation of a man’s mind.

14a) Matthew 8:11

I tell you, many will come from east and west and sit at table with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob in the kingdom of heaven,

14b) Baruch 4:37

Behold, your sons are coming, whom you sent away; they are coming, gathered from east and west, at the word of the Holy One, rejoicing in the glory of God.

15a) Matthew 9:36 

When he saw the crowds, he had compassion for them, because they were harassed and helpless, like sheep without a shepherd.

15b) Judith 11:19

. . . you will lead them like sheep that have no shepherd, . . .

16a) Matthew 10:16

“Behold, I send you out as sheep in the midst of wolves; so be wise as serpents and innocent as doves.

16b) Sirach 13:17

What fellowship has a wolf with a lamb? No more has a sinner with a godly man.

17a) Matthew 11:14 

and if you are willing to accept it, he is Eli’jah who is to come.

[cf. Matthew 17:11 below]

17b) Sirach 48:10

you who are ready at the appointed time, it is written, to calm the wrath of God before it breaks out in fury, to turn the heart of the father to the son, and to restore the tribes of Jacob. [see verses 1-9] 

18a) Matthew 11:29

Take my yoke upon you, and learn from me; for I am gentle and lowly in heart, and you will find rest for your souls.

18b) Sirach 6:24s

23: Listen, my son, and accept my judgment; do not reject my counsel.
24: Put your feet into her fetters, and your neck into her collar.
25: Put your shoulder under her and carry her, and do not fret under her bonds.
26: Come to her with all your soul, and keep her ways with all your might.
27: Search out and seek, and she will become known to you; and when you get hold of her, do not let her go.

18c) Sirach 6:28s 

28: For at last you will find the rest she gives, and she will be changed into joy for you.
29: Then her fetters will become for you a strong protection, and her collar a glorious robe.
30: Her yoke is a golden ornament, and her bonds are a cord of blue.
31: You will wear her like a glorious robe, and put her on like a crown of gladness.

18d) Sirach 51:26s 

26: Put your neck under the yoke, and let your souls receive instruction; it is to be found close by.
27: See with your eyes that I have labored little and found myself much rest.

19a) Matthew 12:4 

how he entered the house of God and ate the bread of the Presence, which it was not lawful for him to eat nor for those who were with him, but
only for the priests?

19b) 2 Maccabees 10:3

They purified the sanctuary, and made another altar of sacrifice; then, striking fire out of flint, they offered sacrifices, after a lapse of two years, and they burned incense and lighted lamps and set out the bread of the Presence.

20a) Matthew 13:44 

“The kingdom of heaven is like treasure hidden in a field, which a man found and covered up; then in his joy he goes and sells all that he has and buys that field.

20b) Sirach 20:30s

30: Hidden wisdom and unseen treasure, what advantage is there in either of them?
31: Better is the man who hides his folly than the man who hides his wisdom.

21a) Matthew 16:18

And I tell you, you are Peter, and on this rock I will build my church, and the powers of death shall not prevail against it.
[KJV: “gates of hell” / NIV: “gates of Hades” / the Greek is Hades]

21b) Wisdom 16:13 

For thou hast power over life and death; thou dost lead men down to the gates of Hades and back again.

22a) Matthew 16:27

For the Son of man is to come with his angels in the glory of his Father, and then he will repay every man for what he has done.

22b) Sirach 35:18-19 [mistakenly listed as 35:22 in Nestle-Aland (or in Jimmy Akin’s chart); the chapter has only 20 verses] 

18: And the Lord will not delay, neither will he be patient with them, till he crushes the loins of the unmerciful and repays vengeance on the nations; till he takes away the multitude of the insolent, and breaks the scepters of the unrighteous;
19: till he repays the man according to his deeds, and the works of men according to their devices; till he judges the case of his people and makes them rejoice in his mercy.

23a) Matthew 17:11 

He replied, “Eli’jah does come, and he is to restore all things;

[cf. Matthew 11:14 above] 

23b) Sirach 48:10

you who are ready at the appointed time, it is written, to calm the wrath of God before it breaks out in fury, to turn the heart of the father to the son, and to restore the tribes of Jacob. [see verses 1-9] 

24a) Matthew 18:10 

“See that you do not despise one of these little ones; for I tell you that in heaven their angels always behold the face of my Father who is in heaven.

24b) Tobit 12:15

I am Raphael, one of the seven holy angels who present the prayers of the saints and enter into the presence of the glory of the Holy One.”

25a) Matthew 23:38 

Behold, your house is forsaken and desolate.

25b) Tobit 14:4 

Go to Media, my son, for I fully believe what Jonah the prophet said about Nineveh, that it will be overthrown. But in Media there will be peace for a time. Our brethren will be scattered over the earth from the good land, and Jerusalem will be desolate. The house of God in it will be burned down and will be in ruins for a time.

26a) Matthew 27:24

So when Pilate saw that he was gaining nothing, but rather that a riot was beginning, he took water and washed his hands before the crowd, saying, “I am innocent of this man’s blood; see to it yourselves.”

26b) Daniel 13:46 [b] [Susanna 1:46] 

. . . “I am innocent of the blood of this woman.”

27a) Matthew 27:43 

He trusts in God; let God deliver him now, if he desires him; for he said, `I am the Son of God.'”

27b) Wisdom 2:13,18-20 [+12,14-17,21-22] 

12: “Let us lie in wait for the righteous man, because he is inconvenient to us and opposes our actions; he reproaches us for sins against the law, and accuses us of sins against our training.
13: He professes to have knowledge of God, and calls himself a child of the Lord.
14: He became to us a reproof of our thoughts;
15: the very sight of him is a burden to us, because his manner of life is unlike that of others, and his ways are strange.
16: We are considered by him as something base, and he avoids our ways as unclean; he calls the last end of the righteous happy, and boasts that God is his father.
17: Let us see if his words are true, and let us test what will happen at the end of his life;
18: for if the righteous man is God’s son, he will help him, and will deliver him from the hand of his adversaries.
19: Let us test him with insult and torture, that we may find out how gentle he is, and make trial of his forbearance.
20: Let us condemn him to a shameful death, for, according to what he says, he will be protected.”
21: Thus they reasoned, but they were led astray, for their wickedness blinded them,
22: and they did not know the secret purposes of God, nor hope for the wages of holiness, nor discern the prize for blameless souls;

See also (from Nestle-Aland list):

Matthew 5:2ss and Sirach 25:7-12
Matthew 6:23 and Sirach 14:10
Matthew 6:33 and Wisdom 7:11
Matthew 8:21 and Tobit 4:3
Matthew 9:38 and 1 Maccabees 12:17
Matthew 11:22 and Judith 16:17
Matthew 11:25 and Tobit 7:17 / Sirach 51:1
Matthew 11:28 and Sirach 24:19 / Sirach 51:23
Matthew 12:5 and Sirach 40:15 [?]
Matthew 16:22 and 1 Maccabees 2:21
Matthew 20:2 and Tobit 5:15
Matthew 22:13 and Wisdom 17:2
Matthew 24:15 and 1 Maccabees 1:54 / 2 Maccabees 8:17
Matthew 24:16 and 1 Maccabees 2:28
Matthew 25:35 and Tobit 4:17
Matthew 25:36 and Sirach 7:32-35
Matthew 26:38 and Sirach 37:2

MARK 

1a) Mark 4:5

Other seed fell on rocky ground, where it had not much soil, and immediately it sprang up, since it had no depth of soil;

1b) Sirach 40:15

The children of the ungodly will not put forth many branches; they are unhealthy roots upon sheer rock.

2a) Mark 4:11

And he said to them, “To you has been given the secret of the kingdom of God, but for those outside everything is in parables;

2b) Wisdom 2:22

and they did not know the secret purposes of God, nor hope for the wages of holiness, nor discern the prize for blameless souls;

3a) Mark 5:34

And he said to her, “Daughter, your faith has made you well; go in peace, and be healed of your disease.”

3b) Judith 8:35

Uzziah and the rulers said to her, “Go in peace, and may the Lord God go before you, to take revenge upon our enemies

4a) Mark 9:48

where their worm does not die, and the fire is not quenched.

4b) Judith 16:17

Woe to the nations that rise up against my people! The Lord Almighty will take vengeance on them in the day of judgment; fire and worms he will give to their flesh; they shall weep in pain for ever.

5a) Mark 14:34

And he said to them, “My soul is very sorrowful, even to death; remain here, and watch.”

5b) Sirach 37:2

Is it not a grief to the death when a companion and friend turns to enmity?

6a) Mark 15:29

And those who passed by derided him, wagging their heads, and saying, “Aha! You who would destroy the temple and build it in three days,

6b) Wisdom 2:17s

Let us see if his words are true, and let us test what will happen at the end of his life;

LUKE

1a) Luke 1:17

and he will go before him in the spirit and power of Eli’jah, to turn the hearts of the fathers to the children, and the disobedient to the wisdom of the just, to make ready for the Lord a people prepared.”

1b) Sirach 48:10

you who are ready at the appointed time, it is written, to calm the wrath of God before it breaks out in fury, to turn the heart of the father to the son, and to restore the tribes of Jacob.

2a) Luke 1:19

And the angel answered him, “I am Gabriel, who stand in the presence of God; and I was sent to speak to you, and to bring you this good news.

2b) Tobit 12:15

I am Raphael, one of the seven holy angels who present the prayers of the saints and enter into the presence of the glory of the Holy One.”

3a) Luke 1:42

and she exclaimed with a loud cry, “Blessed are you among women, and blessed is the fruit of your womb!

3b) Judith 13:18

And Uzziah said to her, “O daughter, you are blessed by the Most High God above all women on earth; and blessed be the Lord God, who created the heavens and the earth, who has guided you to strike the head of the leader of our enemies.

4a) Luke 1:52

he has put down the mighty from their thrones, and exalted those of low degree;

4b) Sirach 10:14

The Lord has cast down the thrones of rulers, and has seated the lowly in their place.

5a) Luke 2:29

“Lord, now lettest thou thy servant depart in peace, according to thy word;

5b) Tobit 11:9

Then Anna ran to meet them, and embraced her son, and said to him, “I have seen you, my child; now I am ready to die.” And they both wept.

6a) Luke 2:37

and as a widow till she was eighty-four. She did not depart from the temple, worshiping with fasting and prayer night and day.

6b) Judith 8:6

She fasted all the days of her widowhood, except the day before the sabbath and the sabbath itself, the day before the new moon and the day of the new moon, and the feasts and days of rejoicing of the house of Israel.

7a) Luke 6:35

But love your enemies, and do good, and lend, expecting nothing in return; and your reward will be great, and you will be sons of the Most High; for he is kind to the ungrateful and the selfish.

7b) Wisdom 15:1

But thou, our God, art kind and true, patient, and ruling all things in mercy.

8a) Luke 7:22

And he answered them, “Go and tell John what you have seen and heard: the blind receive their sight, the lame walk, lepers are cleansed, and the deaf hear, the dead are raised up, the poor have good news preached to them.

8b) Sirach 48:5

You who raised a corpse from death and from Hades, by the word of the Most High;

9a) Luke 9:8

by some that Eli’jah had appeared, and by others that one of the old prophets had risen.

9b) Sirach 48:10

you who are ready at the appointed time, it is written, to calm the wrath of God before it breaks out in fury, to turn the heart of the father to the son, and to restore the tribes of Jacob. [Elijah: see v. 4]

10a) Luke 10:19

Behold, I have given you authority to tread upon serpents and scorpions, and over all the power of the enemy; and nothing shall hurt you.

10b) Sirach 11:24 [incorrectly listed by Akin (or Nestle?) as 11:19]

Do not say, “I have enough, and what calamity could happen to me in the future?”

11a) Luke 12:19

And I will say to my soul, Soul, you have ample goods laid up for many years; take your ease, eat, drink, be merry.’

11b) Tobit 7:9 [incorrectly listed by Akin (or Nestle?) as 7:10]

So he communicated the proposal to Raguel. And Raguel said to Tobias, “Eat, drink, and be merry;

12a) Luke 12:20
But God said to him, `Fool! This night your soul is required of you; and the things you have prepared, whose will they be?’

12b) Wisdom 15:8

With misspent toil, he forms a futile god from the same clay — this man who was made of earth a short time before and after a little while goes to the earth from which he was taken, when he is required to return the soul that was lent him.

13a) Luke 13:27

But he will say, `I tell you, I do not know where you come from; depart from me, all you workers of iniquity!’

13b) 1 Maccabees 3:6

Lawless men shrank back for fear of him; all the evildoers were confounded; and deliverance prospered by his hand.

14a) Luke 13:29

And men will come from east and west, and from north and south, and sit at table in the kingdom of God.

14b) Baruch 4:37

Behold, your sons are coming, whom you sent away; they are coming, gathered from east and west, at the word of the Holy One, rejoicing in the glory of God.

15a) Luke 14:13

But when you give a feast, invite the poor, the maimed, the lame, the blind,

15b) Tobit 2:2

Upon seeing the abundance of food I said to my son, “Go and bring whatever poor man of our brethren you may find who is mindful of the Lord, and I will wait for you.”

16a) Luke 18:7

And will not God vindicate his elect, who cry to him day and night? Will he delay long over them?

16b) Sirach 35:16-17 [incorrectly listed by Akin (or Nestle?) as 35:22]

He whose service is pleasing to the Lord will be accepted, and his prayer will reach to the clouds. The prayer of the humble pierces the clouds, and he will not be consoled until it reaches the Lord; he will not desist until the Most High visits him, and does justice for the righteous, and executes judgment.

17a) Luke 19:44b

. . . because you did not know the time of your visitation.”

17b) Wisdom 3:7a

In the time of their visitation . . .

18a) Luke 21:24

they will fall by the edge of the sword, and be led captive among all nations; and Jerusalem will be trodden down by the Gentiles, until the times of the Gentiles are fulfilled.

18b) Tobit 14:5

But God will again have mercy on them, and bring them back into their land; and they will rebuild the house of God, though it will not be like the former one until the times of the age are completed. After this they will return from the places of their captivity, and will rebuild Jerusalem in splendor. And the house of God will be rebuilt there with a glorious building for all generations for ever, just as the prophets said of it.

18b) Sirach 28:18

Many have fallen by the edge of the sword, but not so many as have fallen because of the tongue.

19a) Luke 21:25

“And there will be signs in sun and moon and stars, and upon the earth distress of nations in perplexity at the roaring of the sea and the waves,

19b) Wisdom 5:22 

and hailstones full of wrath will be hurled as from a catapult; the water of the sea will rage against them, and rivers will relentlessly overwhelm them;

20a) Luke 24:4

While they were perplexed about this, behold, two men stood by them in dazzling apparel;

20b) 2 Maccabees 3:26

Two young men also appeared to him, remarkably strong, gloriously beautiful and splendidly dressed, who stood on each side of him and scourged him continuously, inflicting many blows on him.

21a) Luke 24:31

And their eyes were opened and they recognized him; and he vanished out of their sight.

21b) 2 Maccabees 3:34

And see that you, who have been scourged by heaven, report to all men the majestic power of God.” Having said this they vanished.

22a) Luke 24:50

Then he led them out as far as Bethany, and lifting up his hands he blessed them.

22b) Sirach 50:20s

Then Simon came down, and lifted up his hands over the whole congregation of the sons of Israel, to pronounce the blessing of the Lord with his lips, and to glory in his name;

23a) Luke 24:53

and were continually in the temple blessing God.

23b) Sirach 50:22

And now bless the God of all, who in every way does great things; who exalts our days from birth, and deals with us according to his mercy.

See also (from Nestle-Aland list):

Mark 1:15 and Tobit 14:5
Mark 6:49 and Wisdom 17:15
Mark 8:37 and Sirach 26:14
Mark 9:31 and Sirach 2:18
Mark 10:18 and Sirach 4:1 (?)
Luke 10:17 and Tobit 7:17 (?)
Luke 10:21 and Sirach 51:1
Luke 13:25 and Tobit 14:4
Luke 15:12 and 1 Maccabees 10:29 [30]
Luke 15:12 and Tobit 3:17

JOHN

1a) John 1:3

all things were made through him, and without him was not anything made that was made.

1b) Wisdom 9:1

“O God of my fathers and Lord of mercy, who hast made all things by thy word,

2a) John 3:8

The wind blows where it wills, and you hear the sound of it, but you do not know whence it comes or whither it goes; so it is with every one who is born of the Spirit.”

2b) Sirach 16:21

Like a tempest which no man can see, so most of his works are concealed.

3a) John 3:13

No one has ascended into heaven but he who descended from heaven, the Son of man.

3b) Baruch 3:29

Who has gone up into heaven, and taken her, and brought her down from the clouds?

4a) John 5:18

This was why the Jews sought all the more to kill him, because he not only broke the sabbath but also called God his Father, making himself equal with God.

4b) Wisdom 2:16

We are considered by him as something base, and he avoids our ways as unclean; he calls the last end of the righteous happy, and boasts that God is his father.

5a) John 7:38

He who believes in me, as the scripture has said, `Out of his heart shall flow rivers of living water.'”

5b) Sirach 24:30

I went forth like a canal from a river and like a water channel into a garden.

6a) John 8:53

Are you greater than our father Abraham, who died? And the prophets died! Who do you claim to be?”

6b) Sirach 44:19

Abraham was the great father of a multitude of nations, and no one has been found like him in glory;

7a) John 10:20

Many of them said, “He has a demon, and he is mad; why listen to him?”

7b) Wisdom 5:4

“This is the man whom we once held in derision and made a byword of reproach — we fools! We thought that his life was madness and that his end was without honor.

8a) John 14:15

“If you love me, you will keep my commandments.

8b) Wisdom 6:18

and love of her is the keeping of her laws, and giving heed to her laws is assurance of immortality,

9a) John 15:9s

As the Father has loved me, so have I loved you; abide in my love.

9b) Wisdom 3:9

Those who trust in him will understand truth, and the faithful will abide with him in love, because grace and mercy are upon his elect, and he watches over his holy ones.

10a) John 17:3

And this is eternal life, that they know thee the only true God, and Jesus Christ whom thou hast sent.

10b) Wisdom 15:3

For to know thee is complete righteousness, and to know thy power is the root of immortality.

11a) John 20:22

And when he had said this, he breathed on them, and said to them, “Receive the Holy Spirit.

11b) Wisdom 15:11

because he failed to know the one who formed him and inspired him with an active soul and breathed into him a living spirit.

See also (from Nestle-Aland list): 

John 3:8 and Wisdom 18:15s
John 3:28 and 1 Maccabees 9:39
John 3:32 and Tobit 4:6
John 4:9 and Sirach 50:25s
John 4:48 and Wisdom 8:8
John 6:35 and Sirach 24:21
John 8:44 and Wisdom 2:24
John 10:22 and 1 Maccabees 4:59

 

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