15 Theistic Arguments (Copious Helpful Resources)


Hungarian-British philosopher and polymath Michael Polanyi (1891-1976) in 1933: vanquisher of a moribund positivism, and developer of the notion of tacit knowledge, which has strong similarities to Cardinal Newman’s illative sense [public domain / Wikimedia Commons]

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Beauty as a Road to God (Eleonore Stump, 2007) [PDF download]

Aesthetic Arguments for the Existence of God (Peter S. Williams, 2001)

A Theistic Account of Aesthetic Value (Peter S. Williams) [PDF download]

Beauty and the Existence of God (Peter S. Williams) [PDF download]

Beauty, Providence, and the Biophilia Hypothesis (Mark Wynn) [PDF download]



The Intuitive Conception and Knowledge of God (William P. Alston) [PDF download]

If Knowledge then God: The Epistemological Theistic Arguments of Plantinga and Van Til (James Anderson) [PDF download]

The Theistic Preconditions of Knowledge: A Thumbnail Sketch (James Anderson) [PDF download]

Must Christianity be Empirically Falsifiable? (Dave Armstrong, 2010)

Non-Empirical “Basic” Warrant for Theism & Christianity (Dave Armstrong, 2015)

Dialogue w Agnostic: God as a “Properly Basic Belief” (Dave Armstrong vs. JD Eveland, 2015)

The Epistemology Of Soren Kierkegaard (Siegbert W. Becker)

How Real People Believe: A Defense of Reformed Epistemology (Kelly James Clark) [PDF download]

Without Evidence or Argument: A Defense of Reformed Epistemology (Kelly James Clark, 1999)

Belief in God (William Lane Craig, 2011)

Religious Epistemology (William Lane Craig) [PDF download]

Evidentialism, Reformed Epistemology, and the Holy Spirit (John M. Depoe) [PDF download]

Tacit Knowledge (Dictionary of Philosophy of Mind)

On the Epistemological Status of Belief (Scott David Foutz, 1999)

Christianity and Contemporary Epistemology (John M. Frame) [PDF download]

Catholics vs. Calvinists on Religious Knowledge (John Greco) [PDF download]

“It is Wrong, Everywhere, Always, and for Anyone, to Believe Anything Upon Insufficient Evidence?” (Peter van Inwagen, 1996)

Christian Belief and the Platonic Conception of Rationality (Peter van Inwagen, 1999)

What is Analytic Philosophy? What is Naturalism? (Peter van Inwagen, 2006)

Can Theology be Tacit? A Review Essay on Personal Catholicism, by Martin X. Moleski, S. J. (Joseph Kroger, 2000)

Are Beliefs about God Theoretical Beliefs? Reflections on Aquinas and Kant (John O’Leary-Hawthorne & Daniel Howard-Snyder, 1996)

Faith and Rationality: A Defense of Plantinga’s Reformed Epistemology (Joe Manzari) [PDF download]

Polanyi and Newman: A Reconsideration (Martin X. Moleski, S. J.)

Personal Catholicism (Martin X. Moleski, S. J., 1999)

An Essay in Aid of a Grammar of Assent (book by John Henry Cardinal Newman, 1870)

The Illative Sense [ch. 9 of Grammar of Assent] (John Henry Cardinal Newman, 1870)

Passionate Reason: Kierkegaard and Plantinga on Radical Conversion (Richard Otte, 2014)

Kierkegaard and the Modern Religious Mind (Paul Pardi, 2010)

Induction and Other Minds (Alvin Plantinga, 1966)

Induction and Other Minds, II  (Alvin Plantinga, 1968)

Is Belief in God Properly Basic? (Alvin Plantinga, 1981)

Intellectual Sophistication and Basic Belief in God (Alvin Plantinga, 1986)

Swinburne and Plantinga on Internal Rationality (Alvin Plantinga & Richard Swinburne, 2001)

Rationality and Public Evidence (Alvin Plantinga, 2001)

On ‘Proper Basicality’ (Alvin Plantinga, 2008)

Theism, Atheism, and Rationality (Alvin Plantinga)

An Interview with Professor Alvin Plantinga on “Theism as a Properly Basic Belief” (w Roy Varghese) [PDF download]

Science, Faith, and Society (book by Michael Polanyi, 1946)

The Stability of Beliefs (Michael Polanyi, 1952)

Faith and Reason (Michael Polanyi, 1961)

Tacit Knowing: Its Bearing on Some Problems of Philosophy (Michael Polanyi, 1962)

The Structure of Tacit Knowing (Michael Polanyi, 1964)

The Structure of Tacit Knowing (Michael Polanyi, 1965)

The Structure of Consciousness (Michael Polanyi, 1965)

Transcendence and Self-Transcendence (Michael Polanyi, 1970)

Christian Faith and Belief (Alexander R. Pruss, 2001)

Michael Polanyi and Tacit Knowledge (Mark K. Smith, 2003)

Tacit Knowledge (Wikipedia)



[see my long collection of links]



My “Romantic / Imaginative” Conversion to Christianity (Dave Armstrong, 1997; rev. 2015)

C. S. Lewis and the Romantic Poets on Longing, Sehnsucht, and Joy (edited by Dave Armstrong, 2001)

The Relationship of Romanticism to Christianity and Catholicism in Particular (edited by Dave Armstrong, 2001)

Myth-as-Truth, J. R. R. Tolkien, and the Conversion of C. S. Lewis (edited by Dave Armstrong, 2004)

Argument for God from Desire: Atheist-Christian Dialogue (Dave Armstrong) [8-7-17]

Does Joy Lead to God?: Lewis, Beversluis, and the Argument from Desire (Edward M. Cook) [PDF download]

The Argument from Desire / Longing for the Existence of God (John M. DePoe) [PDF download]

Jack Meets Gen X: Apologetics of Longing and the Postmodern Mood (Gregory Dunn) [PDF download]

The Argument from Desire (Peter Kreeft, 1994)

Argument From Desire: Do our desires point to something or nothing? (Art Lindsey) [PDF download]

The Bayesian Argument from Desire (Victor Reppert, 2009)

The ontological argument from desire (Alexander R. Pruss, 2010)

Eternity in Their Hearts: The Argument from Joy (Kurt T. Wise) [PDF download]

[see also my C. S. Lewis and Romantic & Imaginative Theology: Inklings of the World Beyond web pages for more related materials]



The Experiential Basis of Theism (William P. Alston) [PDF download]

Religious Experience and Religious Belief (William P. Alston, 1982)

Mysticism (Jerome I. Gellman) [PDF download]

Re-Identifying God in Experience  (Jerome I. Gellman) [PDF download]

“William P. Alston” in The Dictionary of Modern American Philosophers (Daniel Howard-Snyder)

Review of Keith E. Yandell, The Epistemology of Religious Experience (Daniel Howard-Snyder, 1997)

Epistemic Virtue, Religious Experience, and Belief (James A. Montmarquet) [PDF download]

A Religious Experience Argument for the Existence of a Holy Transcendent Being (Alexander R. Pruss, 2001)

Emotions in the Christian Tradition (Robert Roberts) [PDF download]

McDowell, Value Recognition, and Affectively Toned Theistic Experience (Mark Wynn) [PDF download]



[includes: Jesus Christ, Miracles, Prophecy, and the Revelation of Inspired Scripture]

[collected in a separate paper]



The Lord of Non-Contradiction: An Argument for God from Logic (James N. Anderson & Greg Welty) [PDF download]

A Response to Nicholas Tattersall’s “A Critique of Miracles by C. S. Lewis” (Darek Barefoot) (PDF download)

A Response to Richard Carrier’s Review of Victor Reppert’s C. S. Lewis’s Dangerous Idea (Darek Barefoot) [PDF download]

The Problem of Epistemology and Cosmic Models (Ben M. Carter) [PDF download]

The Argument from Reason (John M. DePoe) [PDF download]

The Great Cloud of Unknowing: From Naturalism to Nihilism Through Epistemology (Doug Groothuis) [PDF download]

Lewis on Naturalism (Robert C. Koons) [PDF download]

Plantinga on Naturalism (Robert C. Koons) [PDF download]

C. S. Lewis’s Case Against Naturalism (Steven Lovell) [PDF download]

Reasonable Doubt: Why naturalism might not be able to solve the problem of consciousness (Anthony Matteo) [PDF download]

Libertarian Free Will and the Argument from Reason (Angus Menuge) [PDF download]

A Defense of Alvin Plantinga’s Evolutionary Argument Against Naturalism (Troy M. Nunley) [PDF download]

An Evolutionary Argument Against Naturalism (Alvin Plantinga) [PDF download]

The Argument from Reason (Victor Reppert) [PDF download]

Interview on the “Argument from Reason” (Victor Reppert) [PDF download]

Knowledge and Naturalism (Dallas Willard) [PDF download]



Platonism in Mathematics (Paul Bernays) [PDF download]

Theism & Mathematical Realism (John Byl) [PDF download]

Mathematics and Metaphysics (Ben M. Carter) [PDF download]

Scientific Proof of Mathematical Truths? (William Lane Craig, 2010)

The Applicability of Mathematics (William Lane Craig, 2012)

God and the ‘Unreasonable Effectiveness of Mathematics’ (William Lane Craig, 2013)

God and the Applicability of Mathematics (William Lane Craig, 2013)

A Brief Look at Mathematics and Theology (Philip J. Davis) [PDF download]

The Relationship Between Mathematics and the Christian Faith (Edward Fackerell) [PDF download]

Does Mathematical Beauty Pose Problems for Naturalism? (Russell W. Howell) [PDF download]

The Invisible Link Between Mathematics and Theology (Ladislav Kvasz)  [PDF download]



Sentiments of Reason and Aspirations of the Soul (John J. Haldane) [PDF download]

Does the Argument from Mind Provide Evidence for God? (J. P. Moreland) [PDF download]

The Argument from Persons (Josh Rasmussen) [PDF download]

Mind, Cosmology, and Sufficient Reason as a Vindication of Rational Theism (James F. Sennett) [PDF download]

Why Naturalists Should Mind about Physicalism, and Vice Versa (Peter S. Williams) [PDF download]



Moral Arguments for Theistic Belief (Robert M. Adams) [PDF download]

Divine Command Theory (Michael W. Austin) [PDF download]

Theistic Foundations of Morality (David Baggett & Jerry L. Walls, 2011)

Kai Nielson and the Nature of Theistic Ethic (David Basinger) [PDF download]

Philosophical Problems With Moral Relativism (Francis J. Beckwith) [PDF download]

Why I am Not a Moral Relativist (Francis J. Beckwith) [PDF download]

Moral Arguments for the Existence of God (Peter Byrne) [PDF download]

Why Be Moral? Social Contract Theory vs. Kantian-Christian Morality (Kelly James Clark) [PDF download]

Can We Be Good without God? (William Lane Craig, 1992)

Debate: Is the Basis of Morality Natural or Supernatural? (William Lane Craig vs.Richard Taylor, 10-8-93)

The Indispensability of Theological Meta-Ethical Foundations for Morality (William Lane Craig, 1997)

How Can God Be the Ground of Morality? (William Lane Craig, 2007)

Contemporary Moral Arguments (William Lane Craig, 2009)

Moral Law Argument (William Lane Craig, 2010)

Argument From Morality (William Lane Craig, 2010)

Debate: Is the Foundation of Morality Natural or Supernatural? (William Lane Craig vs. Sam Harris, April 2011)

Sam Harris on Objective Moral Values and Duties (William Lane Craig, 2011)

Moral Values and Abstract Objects (William Lane Craig, 2011)

Formulating the Moral Argument (William Lane Craig, 2011)

Moral Argument (William Lane Craig, 2011)

Moral Argument for God (William Lane Craig, 2011)

Navigating Sam Harris’ The Moral Landscape (William Lane Craig, 2012)

Can God Ground Necessary Moral Truths? (William Lane Craig, 2012)

The Plausibility of Grounding Moral Values in God (William Lane Craig, 2012)

Warrant for the Moral Argument’s Second Premiss (William Lane Craig, 2012)

Justification of the Moral Argument’s Second Premiss (William Lane Craig, 2012)

Keeping Moral Epistemology and Moral Ontology Distinct (William Lane Craig, 2012)

The Moral Argument for God (William Lane Craig, 2013)

“Objective” or “Absolute” Moral Values? (William Lane Craig, 2013)

Moral Scepticism (William Lane Craig, 2013)

Can Moral Values Be Based in God? (William Lane Craig, 2014)

Moral Arguments for the Existence of God (C. Stephen Evans, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2014)

Does morality depend on God? (Edward Feser, 2011)

Do We Need God to be Moral? (John Frame vs. Paul Kurtz, 1996)

Any Absolutes? Absolutely! (Norman L. Geisler) [PDF download]

A Defense of an Objective Morality (Matthew Graham) [PDF download]

Immanuel Kant and the Categorical Imperative (Shandon L. Guthrie) [PDF download]

Can we be good without God? (John Hare) [PDF download]

Is there an Evolutionary Foundation for Human Morality? (John Hare) [PDF download]

The Argument from Conscience (Peter Kreeft, 1988)

God as the Grounding of Moral Objectivity: Defending Against Euthyphro (Steven Lovell) [PDF download]

C. S. Lewis and the Euthyphro Dilemma (Steven Lovell) [PDF download]

The Ethical Inadequacy of Naturalism (J. P. Moreland) [PDF download]

Do Objective Ethical Norms Need Theistic Grounding? (Michael J. Murray) [PDF download]

Is it Possible to be Good Without God? (Christopher Price)

Altruism, Teleology and God (Alexander R. Pruss) [PDF download]

Naturalism and Moral Realism (Michael C. Rea) [PDF download]



[see my long collection of links]



Review of Gambling on God, edited by Jeff Jordan (Kelly James Clark) [PDF download]

Pascal’s Wager (William Lane Craig, 2012)

Pascal On Self-Caused Belief (Stephen T. Davis) [PDF download]

Do Vague Probabilities Really Scotch Pascal’s Wager? (Craig Duncan, 2002)

Review of Pascal’s Wager: Pragmatic Arguments and Belief in God, by Jeff Jordan (Craig Duncan, 2008)

The Apologetic Methodology of Blaise Pascal (Phil Fernandes, 2004)

Caricatures of Pascal’s Wager (James Franklin) [PDF download]

Deposed Royalty: Pascal’s Anthropological Argument (Douglas Groothuis, 1998)

A Royal Ruin: Pascal’s Argument from Humanity to Christianity (Douglas Groothuis) [PDF download]

Pragmatic Arguments for Believing in God (Jeff Jordan) [PDF download]

Faith, Probability and Infinite Passion (Robert C. Koons) [PDF download]

The Argument from Pascal’s Wager (Peter Kreeft, 1988)

Wagering a Life (Thomas V. Morris) [PDF download]

Pascal: The First Modern Christian (Edward T. Oakes, 1999)

Pascal’s Wager: Logical Consistency and Usefulness as an Argument for the Existence of God (Robert Peterson) [PDF download]

Pragmatic and Transcendental Arguments for Theism: A Critical Examination (Sami Pihlström) [PDF download]

Gale on a Pragmatic Argument for Religious Belief (Philip L. Quinn) [PDF download]

Greatness and Wretchedness: The Usefulness of Pascal’s Anthropological Argument in Apologetics (Robert Verlarde) [PDF download]



Divine-Human Dialogue and the Nature of God (William P. Alston) [PDF download]

Does Prayer Change Things? (Michael J. Murray) [PDF download]

Response to a Statistical Study of the Effect of Petitionary Prayer (Richard Swinburne) [PDF download]

Prayers for the Past (Kevin Timpe) [PDF download]



[see my long collection of links]



Morality, Structure, Transcendence and Theism: A Response to Melissa Lane’s Reading of Charles Taylor’s Sources of the Self (Deane-Peter Baker) [PDF download]

Imago Dei: Towards a Transcendental Argument for the Existence of God (Deane-Peter Baker) [PDF download]

The Transcendental Argument for God’s Existence (Michael R. Butler) [PDF download]

Naturalism, Theism, and Objective Knowledge (John Byl) [PDF download]

No God, No Laws (Nancy Cartwright) [PDF download]

Transcendental Arguments (John Frame) [PDF download]

Four Arguments for Transcendence (Peter Kreeft, 2008)

The Contingency of Knowledge and Revelatory Theism (R. M. Manion) [PDF download]

The Transcendental and the Transcendent (Sami Pihlström) [PDF download]



Introduction: The Resurrection of Theism (William Lane Craig, 1991)

“Sobel’s Acid Bath for Theism.” Review Article: Logic and Theism: Arguments for and against Beliefs in God, by Jordan Howard Sobel (William Lane Craig, 2004)

Arguing Successfully about God: A Review Essay of Graham Oppy’s Arguing about Gods (William Lane Craig, 2008)

God Is Not Dead Yet (William Lane Craig, 2008)

Theist Arguments (William Lane Craig, 2009)

The New Atheism and Five Arguments for God (William Lane Craig, 2010)

Does God Exist? [8 Arguments] (William Lane Craig, 2013)

Religious Epistemology (Trent Dougherty & Chris Tweedt, 2015)

The Mystery of Persons and Belief in God (C. Stephen Evans) [PDF download]

Classical Theism Roundup (Edward Feser, 2012)

Is Natural Theology Theologically Taboo? (Douglas Groothuis, 1995)

Arguments for the Existence of God (A. J. Hoober, c. 1982)

20 Arguments for the Existence of God (Peter Kreeft, 1994)

The Return of the God Hypothesis (Stephen C. Meyer) [PDF download]

Two Dozen (or so) Theistic Arguments (Alvin Plantinga)

The Justification of Theism  (Richard Swinburne) [PDF download]

“Philosophical Theism” (Richard Swinburne) [PDF download]

The Existence of God  (Richard Swinburne) [PDF download]

Language, Being, God, and the Three Stages of Theistic Evidence (Dallas Willard) [PDF download]

An Apologetic Sketch (Peter S. Williams) [PDF download]

Arguments for the Existence of God (Peter S. Williams) [PDF download]





Is God Eternal? (Roy A. Clouser) [PDF download]

Eternity (Paul Helm) [PDF download]

Before the Mountains Were Brought Forth: A Defense of Divine Timelessness (Lydia McGrew, 2014)

Anselm on Eternity as the Fifth Dimension (Katherin A. Rogers) [PDF download]

Eternity (Eleonore Stump & Norman Kretzmann, 1981) [PDF download]

Timelessness out of Mind: On the Alleged Incoherence of Divine Timelessness (Edward Wierenga) [PDF download]



Immutability (Brian Leftow, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, rev. 2014)

An Evangelical Reformulation of the Doctrine of the Immutability of God ( Bruce A. Ware, 1986)



Aquinas on Divine Impassibility (Paul Helm, 2010)

Timelessly Present, Compassionately Impassible: A Defense of Two Classical Divine Attributes (dissertation by Philip R. Olsson, 2012)



Omnipotence and God’s Existence (Gregory P. Rich) [PDF download]

Omnipotence (Edward Wierenga) [PDF download]



Omnipresence (Edward Wierenga) [PDF download]



Closing the Door on Open Theism (Martyn McGeown)

Omniscience, Time, and Eternity: Is Aquinas Inconsistent? (Kevin M. Staley, 2006)



Simplicity and Aseity (Jeffrey E. Brower) [PDF download]

Making Sense of Divine Simplicity (Jeffrey E. Brower) [PDF download]

Why Is There Anything At All? It’s Simple (Edward Feser, 2013)

Simplicity and Creation (Timothy O’Connor) [PDF download]

On Three Problems of Divine Simplicity (Alexander R. Pruss) [PDF download]

Divine Simplicity (William F. Vallicella) [PDF download]



Creation and Conservation Once More (William Lane Craig, 1998)

Classical Theism (Edward Feser, 2010)

An exchange with Keith Parsons, Part II (Edward Feser, 2014)

The Place of Chance in a World Sustained by God (Peter van Inwagen, 1988)



In Defence of Mystery: a Reply to Dale Tuggy (James Anderson) [PDF download]

The Holy Trinity: Biblical Proofs (Dave Armstrong, 1982)

Pairing and Plus-ing the Godhead: An Algebraic Analogy (Carlos R. Bovell) [PDF download]

The Biblical Basis of the Doctrine of the Trinity (Robert Bowman, Jr.)

The Blessed Trinity (Catholic Encyclopedia)

A Formulation and Defense of the Doctrine of the Trinity (William Lane Craig) [PDF download]

And Yet They Are Not Three Gods But One God (Peter van Inwagen, 1988)

Trinity (Peter van Inwagen, 1998)

Three Persons in One Being: On Attempts to Show that the Doctrine of the Trinity is Self-Contradictory (Peter van Inwagen, 2003)

Third-Person Self-References and Trinitarian Hints in the Old Testament (Andrew S. Malone, 2009)

Split Brains and The Godhead (Trenton Merricks) [PDF download]

The Personality of the Holy Spirit (Glenn Miller)

The Deity of the Holy Spirit (Glenn Miller)

Pushbacks: Problems in the NT Witness to The Holy Spirit (Glenn Miller)

The Ancient Church Formulas in the NT (Glenn Miller)

NT Passages mutually involving the Father, Son, and Spirit (Glenn Miller, 1996)

Christian Distinctives: The Trinity (Glenn Miller, 2002)

Testing the Trinitarian ‘hypothesis’ in the Old Testament (Glenn Miller, 2003)

Nicene Christology and Introduction to the Trinitarianism of the Ante-Nicene Fathers (Matt Paulson)

Trinity and Polytheism (Edward Wierenga) [PDF download]


[Many thanks to the Last Seminary site for the scores and scores of great “PDF download” papers]

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